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Patients entrust buy cheap propecia online their lives to healthcare providers. Healthcare providers, in turn, aim to promote wellness, heal what can be healed and relieve suffering, all with comfort and compassion. Yet, when patients are harmed by their healthcare, buy cheap propecia online too often they experience defensiveness and disregard that actually exacerbates their suffering, adding insult to injury.1 2 Communication and resolution programmes (CRP) can mitigate this further harm and avoid pouring salt on the wounds of patients whom the healthcare system has hurt instead of helped.

These programmes strive to ensure that patients and families injured by medical care receive prompt attention, honest and empathic explanations, sincere expressions of reconciliation including financial and non-financial restitution, and reassurance from efforts to prevent future harm to others.3 Decades of study and interest in CRPs seem to be resulting in increased implementation with the hope that supporting patients, families and caregivers after harm could become the norm rather than the exception.4Yet a central problem looms, and unless effective solutions are enacted, the potential of CRPs may go largely unrealised. The field is rife with inconsistent implementation, which often reflects a selective focus on claims resolution rather than a fully implemented (‘authentic’) buy cheap propecia online CRP.5 Inconsistent CRP implementation means that fewer patients and families benefit from this model and opportunities for improving quality and safety are missed. Authentic CRPs, in contrast, are comprehensive, systematic and principled programmes motivated by fundamental culture change which prioritises patient safety and learning.

In an authentic CRP, honesty and transparency after patient harm are viewed as integral to the clinical mission, not as selective claims management devices.6 CRPs appear to improve patient and provider experiences, patient safety, and in many settings lower defence and liability costs in the short term and improve peer review and stimulate quality and safety over time.7–10 While the claims savings often associated with a CRP are welcome, authentic CRPs focus on a more ambitious goal. Fostering an buy cheap propecia online accountable culture. Nurturing accountability produces better and safer care which serves the overall clinical mission, happily accomplishing more durable claims reduction along the way.Two thoughtful papers in this issue of BMJ Quality &.

Safety highlight barriers to effective CRP implementation and offer important insights to aid in the spread of this critical model.11 12 Below buy cheap propecia online we outline four suggested strategies for realising the vision of authentic CRPs.Strategy 1. Make CRPs a critical organisational priority grounded in the clinical missionThe most important cause of inconsistent CRP implementation is the failure of institutional leaders, including boards and senior executives (‘C-suites’), to recognise them as a mission-critical component of modern healthcare. As a result, even at organisations professing to embrace accountability and transparency after patient harm, CRPs rarely receive overt leadership support or the resources and performance expectations associated with other mission-critical initiatives.13The reasons why CRPs have not been elevated to mission-critical status at healthcare organisations are complex.

Competing and buy cheap propecia online distracting clinical and financial priorities abound. But a central challenge that has hampered CRPs is the tendency of many C-suites to rely on their liability insurance, risk and legal partners to direct the response to injured patients. Neither the insurance buy cheap propecia online industry nor the legal profession naturally shares the same values and mission as healthcare organisations.14 Healthcare leaders need to insist that responses to injured patients align with their organisations’ clinical missions.

In the absence of such C-suite insistence, ‘deny and defend’ will remain the dominant response to injured patients.This C-suite deference to the claims expertise of the insurance industry and legal profession has additional causes, including. (A) resignation that unintended buy cheap propecia online adverse outcomes will happen even with reasonable care. (B) acceptance of litigation as unavoidable and a cost of doing business.

(C) reluctance of chief executive officers/board members (who are not trial lawyers) to challenge worst-case scenarios painted by defence lawyers and insurance claims professionals. And (D) buy cheap propecia online human nature that avoids confrontation and exaggerates the potential challenges of dealing with injured patients. These factors inform the attitude of some health systems that no adverse events deserve compensation and that the caregivers/organisations are the real victims.While it is encouraging to see a few large liability insurers developing CRPs and even incentivising their adoption,15 more insurers are engaging with CRPs as passive observers, with others remaining actively opposed.

Insurers and attorneys will align as CRP partners only when healthcare organisations identify CRPs as a mission-critical priority.Strategy 2 buy cheap propecia online. Compel institutional leaders to recognise the critical importance of CRPsWhat would persuade boards and C-suites to prioritise a CRP?. The study by Prentice et al suggests the answer lies in making institutional leaders recognise the necessity of CRPs through engagement with injured patients and their families.11Prentice and colleagues report the first truly population-based assessment of buy cheap propecia online the impact of medical errors on patients.

Their results highlight the continuing emotional toll that patients and their families suffer from preventable injuries. On an encouraging note, they also document the potential that open and honest communication has for reducing emotional harm. While over half of the patients who reported experiencing medical errors 3–6 years ago described at least one emotional impact from the event, those who reported the greatest degree of open communication with healthcare providers after an error were less likely to experience persisting sadness, depression or feelings buy cheap propecia online of abandonment and betrayal.

Open and honest communication after an error also predicted less doctor/facility avoidance.When boards and C-suites acknowledge the additional emotional harm inflicted on injured patients and their families (not to mention staff) when a CRP is not used or is poorly implemented, the mission-critical nature of CRPs will become paramount.16 17 The emotions of patients and families who have been harmed can be complex, intense and intimidating.18 It has been all too easy for board members and senior executives to look away and avoid direct involvement when their organisations harm the very patients they exist to serve. Patients and their families, of course, cannot enjoy the luxury of looking away.19While boards are sometimes made aware of selected high-value harm events, these cases buy cheap propecia online represent only the tip of the iceberg. Cases of patient harm that are less than catastrophic are rarely shared with boards, but represent a large reservoir of patient and family suffering as well as opportunities for learning.

Many patients who experience injuries hesitate to complain, fearing their ongoing care may be adversely affected.20 21 Patients who have experienced serious harm may have difficulty garnering representation from a qualified plaintiff attorney especially if their claim is deemed to be worth under $500 000. Boards aware only of a few high-value cases will fail to appreciate the magnitude of harm caused by substandard care and buy cheap propecia online falsely believe that their organisation is responding optimally to the few they know about.Engaging a patient as soon as possible after an unplanned clinical event is a CRP hallmark. Listening, with the explicit goal of understanding the experiences of patients and families who have been harmed, is invaluable to any organisation striving for patient centricity and generates insights not available to ‘deny and defend’ adherents.

Partnering with patients who have had unplanned clinical outcomes changes the way healthcare organisations value informed consent, buy cheap propecia online transitions of care and communication in general. As patient engagement is normalised across organisations, boards and C-suites will readily recognise the importance to their clinical mission and the value of the return on investment in the CRP model beyond financial gains. The accountable culture which emerges buy cheap propecia online has the potential to generate other benefits unthinkable in a defensive environment.

Improved staff morale with better staff retention, an open environment which values speaking up for safety, accelerated and more effective clinical outcomes and evidence-based peer review, to name a few.Strategy 3. Invest in CRP implementation tools and resourcesEquating CRPs to early claims resolution predictably yields inconsistent and selective application of the model and, worse, a failure to realise its full potential for cultural improvement.22 Even as boards and C-suites accept the mission-critical status of CRPs (the ‘why’), they may not appreciate the importance of the ‘how’. The second CRP-related paper in this issue of BMJ Quality and Safety emphasises how successful CRPs rely on the development of systems and standard work to promote consistent application.12 Mello and colleagues describe the work of the Massachusetts Alliance for Communication and Resolution after Medical Injury (MACRMI) and articulate the most important elements of their success buy cheap propecia online to date.

Their findings reinforce other papers that emphasize the critical nature of having the right people, processes and systems in place.23One essential element of the MACRMI model is the commitment to a process of reviewing unplanned clinical outcomes eligible for a CRP approach. Normalising a triaged review and then faithfully using buy cheap propecia online the CRP for all eligible cases, regardless of whether that case might become a claim, allows the CRP to meet patient, family and caregiver needs, as well as to drive process improvements faster on a much broader group of harm events. This systematic approach to case selection also demonstrates to clinical audiences that the CRP is not premised primarily on saving money, but is a norm expected within the clinical mission.The MACRMI experience also highlights the importance of devoting sufficient resources to planning and executing a CRP.

Many organisations focus most of their CRP efforts around training different teams to enact key steps in the CRP process. While trainings buy cheap propecia online may be a necessary element, reproducible workflows and simple tools are far more important. With clear leadership support, these tools and processes must be developed with and by the people in the organisation who will actually use them, rather than imposing approaches that may have worked in another system that is organised differently.

Organisations should understand that potential litigation buy cheap propecia online is an ever-present reality. Sometimes, despite the CRP’s principled assessment and engagement, reasonable minds may still differ, and in a small minority of cases litigation is required. Because the motivation for CRPs is to instil the accountable culture required for continual clinical improvement, success cannot be contingent on erasing the threat of litigation altogether.Finally, a significant element of MACRMI’s success involved a shared learning community in which organisational leaders and buy cheap propecia online key managers came together to discuss CRP cases supported by unfiltered patient experiences, clinical and patient safety findings and measures of implementation.

The community acquired a moral authority which encouraged accountability, consistent application of CRP principles, and ultimately demonstrated broad results of the favourable impact on patients, providers, system learning and liability costs.Strategy 4. Deploy CRP metrics to govern CRP and track progressMetrics matter. Organisations measure what they deem important.5 At present it is rare that organisations buy cheap propecia online know how many unintended clinical events occurred in the previous year, how many of the affected patients and families were treated with honesty and transparency, how many of those deemed worthy of compensation actually received it, how many of the affected providers received care, or how many of those cases resulted in clinical improvements.

The absence of these data makes it nearly impossible to assign appropriate leadership accountabilities for CRPs and to understand how well a CRP is functioning in service to the organisational mission. Measuring mainly claims and costs signals a preoccupation with money, not continual clinical improvement, and certainly not patient centricity or care for the caregiver buy cheap propecia online workforce. A comprehensive suite of national CRP measures is currently being developed and refined jointly by the Collaborative for Accountability and Improvement and Ariadne Labs, and should be ready for widespread dissemination by the end of this year.ClosingHealthcare organisations exist to serve with compassion and clinical excellence the patients and their families who entrust them with their lives.

Our society expects no less. The privilege of delivering healthcare, a practice that is intrinsically dangerous, carries a heavy responsibility to minimise the buy cheap propecia online risk of harm. When patients are harmed, CRPs honour patients’ trust and caregivers’ selfless dedication with honesty, transparency, best efforts at reconciliation for all and relentless determination to improve.

One thing buy cheap propecia online is clear. Shedding ‘deny and defend’ in favour of a transition to an authentic CRP undoubtedly requires leadership from boards and C-suites focused on their organisations’ clinical mission. If healthcare organisations are sincere in striving to attain their clinical goals, they will insist on nothing less than elevating their CRPs to mission-critical status and using the requisite tools and resources to ensure consistent application of this model.AcknowledgmentsMany thanks to Gary S Kaplan, MD, for contributing to the concepts presented in this paper, and to Paulina H Osinska, MPH, for her assistance with manuscript preparation..

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During a series of FTA listening sessions held over the last three months, transit agencies asked FTA to support research to identify solutions to address the operational challenges that they are facing as a result of hair loss treatment. In response, FTA makes available through this Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO) funding to support research demonstration grants to public transit agencies to develop, deploy, and demonstrate innovative solutions that improve the operational efficiency of transit agencies, as well as enhance the mobility of transit users affected by the hair loss treatment public health emergency. Demonstration grants under this NOFO are propecia memory loss authorized under FTA's Public Transportation Innovation Program (49 U.S.C.

5312). Eligible projects will demonstrate innovative solutions to improve the operational efficiencies of transit systems and enhance mobility for their communities in four major areas. (1) Vehicle, propecia memory loss facility, equipment and infrastructure cleaning and dis.

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The total funding available for awards under this NOFO is $10,000,000. FTA may propecia memory loss supplement this amount if additional funding becomes available. Applicants must submit completed proposals for funding opportunity FTA-2020-015-TRI through the GRANTS.GOV “APPLY” function by 11:59 p.m.

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FTA will not accept mail and fax submissions. Start Further Info Please send any questions propecia memory loss on this notice to Jamel El-Hamri email. Jamel.El-Hamri@dot.gov phone.

2020-366-8985. A Telecommunication Device for the Deaf (TDD) is available for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing propecia memory loss at 1-800-877-8339. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information Table of Contents A.

Program Description B. Federal Award Information propecia memory loss C. Eligibility Information D.

Application and Submission propecia memory loss Information E. Application Review Information F. Federal Award Administration Information G.

Federal Awarding Agency Contact propecia memory loss Information A. Program Description The Public Transportation hair loss treatment Research Demonstration Grant Program is funded through the Public Transportation Innovation Program (49 U.S.C. 5312), with the goal to develop, deploy, and demonstrate innovative solutions that improve the operational efficiency of transit agencies, as well as enhance the mobility of transit users affected by the hair loss treatment public health emergency.

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5312(e)(4), projects funded under this NOFO must participate in an evaluation by an independent outside entity that will conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the success or failure of the projects funded under this subsection and any plan for broad-based implementation of the innovation promoted by successful projects. B. Federal Award Information FTA makes available $10,000,000 in fiscal year (FY) 2020 funds under the Public Transportation Innovation propecia memory loss Program (49 U.S.C.

5312) to finance the Public Transportation hair loss treatment Research Demonstration Grant Program. FTA may supplement the total funds available if additional funding becomes available at the time project selections are made. FTA will propecia memory loss grant pre-award authority starting on the date of the project award announcement for selected projects and should be completed within 24 months from the date of award.

Funds are available only for eligible expenses incurred after the announcement of project selections. C. Eligibility Information (1) Eligible Applicants Eligible applicants include State and local propecia memory loss governmental authorities, direct recipients of Urbanized Area (49 U.S.C.

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The supplemental form for the FY 2020 hair loss treatment Demonstration Program (downloadable from GRANTS.GOV), which is available on FTA's website at (placeholder for FTA hair loss treatment Demonstration Program). The application must include responses to all sections of the SF-424 mandatory form and the supplemental form unless a section is indicated as optional. FTA will use the information on the supplemental form to determine applicant and project eligibility for the program and to evaluate the proposal against the selection criteria described in part E of this notice propecia memory loss.

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Addressing the deteriorating conditions and disproportionately high fatality rates on our rural transportation infrastructure is of critical interest to the Department, as rural transportation networks face unique challenges in safety, infrastructure condition, and passenger and freight usage. Consistent with propecia memory loss the R.O.U.T.E.S. Initiative, the Department encourages applicants to consider how the project will address the challenges faced by rural areas.

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Applicant Name ii. Dun and Bradstreet (D&B) Data Universal Numbering propecia memory loss System (DUNS) number iii. Key contact information (contact name, address, email address, and phone number) iv.

Congressional district(s) where project will take place v. Project Information (title, executive summary, and type) vi propecia memory loss. A detailed description of the need for the project vii.

A detailed description of how the project will propecia memory loss support the Program objectives viii. Evidence that the applicant can provide the local cost shares ix. A description of the technical, legal, and financial capacity of the applicant x.

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All applicants must provide a unique entity identifier provided by SAM. Registration in SAM may take as little as 3-5 business days, but there can be unexpected steps or delays. For example, the propecia memory loss applicant may need to obtain an Employer Identification Number.

FTA recommends allowing ample time, up to several weeks, to complete all steps. For additional information on obtaining a unique entity identifier, please visit www.sam.gov. (4) Submission Dates propecia memory loss and Times Project proposals must be submitted electronically through GRANTS.GOV by 11:59 p.m.

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Proposals submitted after the deadline will only be considered under extraordinary circumstances not within the applicant's control. Deadlines will not be extended due to scheduled website propecia memory loss maintenance. GRANTS.GOV scheduled maintenance and outage times are announced on the GRANTS.GOV website.

Within 48 hours after submitting an electronic application, the applicant should receive two email messages from GRANTS.GOV. (1) Confirmation of successful transmission to GRANTS.GOV propecia memory loss. And (2) confirmation of successful validation by GRANTS.GOV.

If the applicant does not receive confirmation of successful validation or receives a notice of failed validation or incomplete materials, the applicant must address the reason for the failed validation, as described in the email notice, and resubmit before the submission deadline. If making a resubmission for any reason, applicants must include all original attachments regardless of which attachments were updated and check the box on the supplemental form indicating this propecia memory loss is a resubmission. Applicants are encouraged to begin the process of registration on the GRANTS.GOV site well in advance of the submission deadline.

Registration is Start Printed Page 63656a multi-step process, which may take several weeks to complete before an application can be submitted. Registered applicants may still be required to update their registration propecia memory loss before submitting an application. Registration in SAM is renewed annually and persons making submissions on behalf of the Authorized Organization Representative (AOR) must be authorized in GRANTS.GOV by the AOR to make submissions.

(5) Funding Restrictions Funds may be used for post-award expenditures only. Funds under this NOFO cannot be used to reimburse projects for otherwise eligible expenses incurred prior to the date of project propecia memory loss award announcements. (6) Other Submission Requirements FTA encourages applicants to identify scaled funding options in case insufficient funding is available to fund a project at the full requested amount.

If an applicant indicates that a project is scalable, the applicant must provide an propecia memory loss appropriate minimum funding amount that will fund an eligible project that achieves the objectives of the program and meets all relevant program requirements. The applicant must provide a clear explanation of how a reduced award would affect the project budget and scope. FTA may award a lesser amount whether or not the applicant provides a scalable option.

E. Application Review Information (1) Project Evaluation Criteria Addressing the deteriorating conditions and disproportionately high fatality rates on our rural transportation infrastructure is of critical interest to the Department, as rural transportation networks face unique challenges in safety, infrastructure condition, and passenger and freight usage. Consistent with the R.O.U.T.E.S.

Initiative, the Department will consider how the project will address the challenges faced by rural areas. In addition, the Department will review and consider applications for funding pursuant to this Notice in accordance with the President's September 2, 2020 memorandum, entitled Memorandum on Reviewing Funding to State and Local Government Recipients of Federal Funds that Are Permitting Anarchy, Violence, and Destruction in American Cities, consistent with guidance from the Office of Management and Budget and the Attorney General and with all applicable laws. FTA will evaluate proposals submitted according to the following criteria.

(a) Project Innovation and Impact. (b) Project Approach. (c) National Applicability.

(d) Commercialization and/or Knowledge Transfer. And (e) Technical, Legal and Financial Capacity. FTA encourages each applicant to demonstrate how a project supports all criteria with the most relevant information the applicant can provide, regardless of whether such information has been specifically requested or identified in this notice.

A. Project Innovation and Impact i. Effectiveness of the project in achieving and demonstrating the specific objectives of this program.

Ii. Demonstration of benefits in addressing the needs of the transit agency and industry and impacts to infrastructure, equipment, transit workforce, and riders. Iii.

Degree of improvement over current and existing technologies, designs, and/or practices applicable to the transit industry. B. Project Approach i.

Quality of the project approach such as existing partnerships, collaboration strategies and level of commitment of the project partners. Ii. Proposal is realistic in its approach to fulfill the milestones/deliverables, schedule and goals.

C. National Applicability i. Degree to which the project could be replicated by other transit agencies regionally or nationally.

Ii. Ability to evaluate technologies, designs and/or practices in a wide variety of conditions and locales. Iii.

Degree to which the technology, designs and/or practices can be replicated by other transportation modes. D. Commercialization and/or Knowledge Transfer i.

Demonstrates a realistic plan for moving the results of the project into the transit marketplace (patents, conferences, articles in trade magazines, webinar, site visits, etc.). Ii. How the project team plans to work with the industry on improving best practices, guidance and/or standards, if applicable.

Iii. Demonstrate a clear understanding and robust approach to data collection, access and management. E.

Technical, Legal and Financial Capacity Capacity of the applicant and any partners to successfully execute the project effort. There should be no outstanding legal, technical, or financial issues with the applicant that would make this a high-risk project. (2) Review and Selection Process An FTA technical evaluation committee will evaluate proposals based on the published project evaluation criteria.

Members of the technical evaluation committee will rate the applications and may seek clarification about any statement in an application. The FTA Administrator will determine the final selection and amount of funding for each project after consideration of the findings of the technical evaluation committee. Geographic diversity, diversity of the project type, the amount of local match to be provided, and the applicant's receipt and management of other Federal transit funds may be considered in FTA's award decisions.

Prior fare payment innovation efforts may receive priority consideration. The FTA Administrator will consider the following key DOT objectives. A.

Utilizing alternative funding sources and innovative financing models to attract non-Federal sources of investment. B. Whether the project is located in or supports public transportation service in a qualified opportunity zone designated pursuant to 26.U.S.C.

1400Z-1. And c. The extent to which the project addresses challenges specific to the provision of rural public transportation.

(3) FAPIIS Review Prior to making a grant award, FTA is required to review and consider any information about the applicant that is in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS) accessible through SAM. An applicant may review and comment on information about itself that a Federal awarding agency previously entered. FTA will consider any comments by the applicant, in addition to the other information in FAPIIS, in making a judgment about the applicant's integrity, business ethics, and record of performance under Federal awards when completing the review of risk posed by applicants as described in 2 CFR 200.205 Federal Awarding Agency Review of Risk Posed by Applicants.

F. Federal Award Administration Information (1) Federal Award Notices FTA will announce the final project selections on the FTA website. Project recipients should contact their FTA Regional Office for additional information regarding allocations for Start Printed Page 63657projects.

At the time project selections are announced, FTA will extend pre-award authority for the selected projects. There is no blanket pre-award authority for these projects before announcement. There is no minimum or maximum grant award amount, but FTA intends to fund as many meritorious projects as possible.

FTA only will consider proposals from eligible recipients for eligible activities. Due to funding limitations, projects selected for funding may receive less than the amount originally requested. In those cases, applicants must be able to demonstrate that the proposed projects are still viable and can be completed with the amount awarded.

(2) Administrative and National Policy Requirements a. Pre-Award Authority FTA will issue specific guidance to recipients regarding pre-award authority at the time of selection. FTA does not provide pre-award authority for competitive funds until projects are selected, and there are Federal requirements that must be met before costs are incurred.

For more information about FTA's policy on pre-award authority, see the FY 2020 Apportionments Notice published on June 3, 2020, at https://www.govinfo.gov/​content/​pkg/​FR-2020-06-03/​pdf/​2020-11946.pdf. b. Grant Requirements Selected applicants will submit a grant application through FTA's electronic grant management system and adhere to the customary FTA grant requirements for research project (insert Circular name).

All competitive grants, regardless of award amount, will be subject to the Congressional notification and release process. FTA emphasizes that third-party procurement applies to all funding awards, as described in FTA Circular 4220.1F, “Third Party Contracting Guidance.” However, FTA may approve applications that include a specifically identified partnering organization(s) (2 CFR 200.302(f)). When included, the application, budget, and budget narrative should provide a clear understanding of how the selection of these organizations is critical for the project and give sufficient detail about the costs involved.

C. Planning FTA encourages applicants to engage the appropriate State Departments of Transportation, Regional Transportation Planning Organizations, or Metropolitan Planning Organizations in areas to be served by the project funds available under this program. D.

Standard Assurances The applicant assures that it will comply with all applicable Federal statutes, regulations, executive orders, FTA circulars, and other Federal administrative requirements in carrying out any project supported by the FTA grant. The applicant acknowledges that it is under a continuing obligation to comply with the terms and conditions of the grant agreement issued for its project with FTA. The applicant understands that Federal laws, regulations, policies, and administrative practices might be modified from time to time and may affect the implementation of the project.

The applicant agrees that the most recent Federal requirements will apply to the project unless FTA issues a written determination otherwise. The applicant must submit the Certifications and Assurances before receiving a grant if it does not have current certifications on file. E.

Free Speech and Religious Liberty In connection with any program or activity conducted with or benefiting from funds awarded under this notice, recipients of funds must comply with all applicable requirements of Federal law, including, without limitation, the Constitution of the United States. Statutory, regulatory, and public policy requirements, including without limitation, those protecting free speech, religious liberty, public welfare, the environment, and prohibiting discrimination. The conditions of performance, non-discrimination requirements, and other assurances made applicable to the award of funds in accordance with regulations of the Department of Transportation.

And applicable Federal financial assistance and contracting principles promulgated by the Office of Management and Budget. In complying with these requirements, recipients must ensure that no concession agreements are denied or other contracting decisions made on the basis of speech or other activities protected by the First Amendment. If the Department determines that a recipient has failed to comply with applicable Federal requirements, the Department may terminate the award of funds and disallow previously incurred costs, requiring the recipient to reimburse any expended award funds.

(3) Reporting The post-award reporting requirements include submission of the Federal Financial Report (FFR) and Milestone Progress Report in TrAMS. An evaluation of the grant will occur at various points in the demonstration process and at the end of the project. In addition, FTA is responsible for producing an Annual Report to Congress that compiles evaluation of selected projects, including an evaluation of the performance measures identified by the applicants.

All applicants must develop an evaluation plan to measure the success or failure of their projects and describe any plans for broad-based implementation of successful projects. FTA may request data and reports to support the evaluation and Annual Report. A.

Independent Evaluation To achieve a comprehensive understanding of the impacts and implications of each proposed hair loss treatment Research Demonstration Program, projects funded under this announcement will require the recipient to conduct a third party independent evaluation of their project. Recipients will be required to contract with a third party independent evaluator to assist in developing an evaluation plan, and collecting, storing and managing data required to fulfill the evaluation requirement. No more than 10 percent of the Federal share of the project may be used to hire the third-party independent evaluator and the inclusion of a third-party independent evaluation should be described in the grant application.

If the project duration is more than two years, an interim evaluation report would need to be submitted to FTA, otherwise the evaluation report should be included as part of the final project report. B. hair loss treatment Research Demonstration Grant Program Evaluation Projects funded under this announcement will be required to establish a set of performance metrics set by the third-party independent evaluator and shared with FTA.

G. Federal Awarding Agency Contacts Information For questions about applying, please contact Jamel El-Hamri email. Jamel.El-Hamri@dot.gov phone.

202-366-8985. A TDD is available at 1-800-877-8339 (TDDFIRS). To ensure that applicants receive accurate information about eligibility or the program, applicants are encouraged to contact FTA directly with questions, rather than through intermediaries or third parties.Start Printed Page 63658 FTA staff also may conduct briefings on the competitive grants selection and award process upon request.

Start Signature K. Jane Williams, Deputy Administrator. End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc.

2020-22316 Filed 10-7-20. 8:45 am]BILLING CODE 4910-57-PStart Preamble Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services. Notice.

The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of Infectious Disease and HIV/AIDS Policy (OIDP) in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health (OASH) announces the draft Viral Hepatitis National Strategic Plan. A Roadmap to Elimination (2021-2025) (Hepatitis Plan) available for public comment. The draft Hepatitis Plan may be reviewed at www.hhs.gov/​hepatitis.

All comments must be received by 5:00 p.m. ET on October 8, 2020 to ensure consideration. All comments must be submitted electronically to HepatitisPlanComments@hhs.gov.

Start Further Info Carol Jimenez, OIDP, Carol.Jimenez@hhs.gov. 202-401-5131. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information Viral hepatitis is a significant public health threat that puts people who are infected at increased risk for serious disease and death.

In the United States, new hepatitis A and hepatitis C s have increased dramatically in recent years, little progress has been made on preventing hepatitis B s, and, as of 2016, an estimated 3.3 million people were chronically infected with hepatitis B and hepatitis C.1-3 Collectively, viral hepatitis costs people, health systems, states, and the federal government billions of dollars each year 4 5 and contributes to substantial health disparities, stigma, and discrimination. Reversing the rates of viral hepatitis, preventing new s, and improving care and treatment require a strategic and coordinated approach by federal partners in collaboration with state and local health departments, tribal communities, community-based organizations, and other nonfederal partners and stakeholders. To spur action to reduce new viral hepatitis s and their adverse public health impact, OASH through OIDP, in collaboration with federal partners throughout HHS and other departments, led and coordinated development of the Hepatitis Plan.

Opportunities for public input were provided, and public comments received were reviewed and analyzed and helped inform the components of the Hepatitis Plan. The Hepatitis Plan focuses on hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C—the hepatitis propeciaes that most significantly affect the health of the nation. It is an elimination plan, with the overarching goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a public health threat in the United States by 2030.

The Hepatitis Plan is intended to serve as a roadmap for all stakeholders at all levels to eliminate hepatitis in this nation. The Hepatitis Plan presents a strategic framework for integrating and leveraging synergistic policies, programs, and resources. It sets forth a vision and five goals for the nation, with objectives and strategies for each goal.

The objectives and strategies offered in this plan are interrelated and may be used to make progress toward more than one goal. The Hepatitis Plan identifies disproportionately impacted populations based on national hepatitis incidence, prevalence, and mortality data, to help federal and other stakeholders focus their efforts to realize the greatest impact. The Hepatitis Plan also includes indicators to measure progress and quantitative targets for each indicator.

Although it is a 5-year plan, it sets 10-year quantitative targets for each indicator—reflecting the reality that it will take more than 5 years to eliminate viral hepatitis as a public health threat. The order in which the goals, objectives, strategies, and indicators are presented is not associated with any prioritization. The following are the Hepatitis Plan's vision and goals.

Vision. The United States will be a place where new viral hepatitis s are prevented, every person knows their status, and every person with viral hepatitis has high-quality health care and treatment and lives free from stigma and discrimination. This vision includes all people, regardless of age, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, geographic location, or socioeconomic circumstance.

Goals. 1. Prevent New Viral Hepatitis s 2.

Improve Viral Hepatitis—Related Health Outcomes of People with Viral Hepatitis 3. Reduce Viral Hepatitis—Related Disparities and Health Inequities 4. Improve Viral Hepatitis Surveillance and Data Usage 5.

Achieve Integrated, Coordinated Efforts That Address the Viral Hepatitis Epidemics among All Partners and Stakeholders A roadmap for stakeholders at all levels and sectors, the Hepatitis Plan envisions a whole-of-nation response to preventing and controlling viral hepatitis in the United States. The Hepatitis Plan assumes the active participation of state, local, and tribal health departments and organizations, health plans and health care providers, schools and other academic institutions, community- and faith-based organizations, scientists, researchers, and the public in this effort. The priority populations, indicators, and quantitative targets, especially the methods used to determine them, are intended to help focus efforts and limited resources to realize the most impact.

Stakeholders are encouraged to focus on activities that resonate the most with the needs of the populations they serve and services they provide, and, using the Hepatitis Plan as a framework, develop their own plans to eliminate viral hepatitis and improve the health of their communities, states, tribal nations, and the nation. Information Needs The draft Hepatitis Plan may be reviewed at. Www.hhs.gov/​hepatitis.

OIDP seeks to obtain feedback from external stakeholders on the following. 1. Do the draft plan's goals, objectives, and strategies appropriately address the viral hepatitis epidemics?.

2. Are there any critical gaps in the Hepatitis Plan's goals, objectives, and strategies?. If so, please specify the gaps.

3. Do any of the Hepatitis Plan's goals, objectives and strategies cause concern?. If so, please specify the goal, objective or strategy, and describe the concern regarding it.

Each commenter is limited to a maximum of seven pages. Start Authority 77 FR 15761 (March 16, 2012). End Authority Start Signature Dated.

September 22, 2020. B. Kaye Hayes, Acting Director, Office of Infectious Disease and HIV/AIDS Policy.

End Signature Footnotes 1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral Hepatitis Surveillance—Start Printed Page 60814United States, 2018.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2020.

Accessed August 9, 2020. Https://www.cdc.gov/​hepatitis/​statistics/​2018surveillance/​index.htm. 2.

Hofmeister MG, Rosenthal EM, Barker LK, et al. Estimating prevalence of hepatitis C propecia in the United States, 2013-2016. Hepatology.

2019 Mar;69(3):1020-1031. Doi. 10.1002/hep.30297.

3. LeFevre ML. Screening for hepatitis B propecia in nonpregnant adolescents and adults.

US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Annals Internal Med. 2014;161(1):58-66.

4. Morey RJ, Collier MG, Nelson NP. The financial burden of public health responses to hepatitis A cases among food handlers, 2012-2014.

Public Health Rep. 2017;132(4):443-447. Doi:10.1177/0033354917710947.

5. Wittenborn J, Brady J, Dougherty M, Rein D. Potential epidemiologic, economic, and budgetary impacts of current rates of hepatitis C treatment in Medicare and non-Medicare populations.

Hepatol Commun. 2017;1(2):99-109. Doi:10.1002/hep4.1031.

End Supplemental Information [FR Doc. 2020-21288 Filed 9-25-20. 8:45 am]BILLING CODE 4150-43-P.

Start Preamble buy cheap propecia online Federal http://buzz-feed.co.uk/online-pharmacy-ventolin/ Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. Notice of funding opportunity. The hair loss Disease 2019 (hair loss treatment) public health emergency Start Printed Page 63654has buy cheap propecia online had a significant impact on transit operations. During a series of FTA listening sessions held over the last three months, transit agencies asked FTA to support research to identify solutions to address the operational challenges that they are facing as a result of hair loss treatment.

In response, FTA makes available through this Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO) funding to support research demonstration grants to public transit agencies to develop, deploy, and demonstrate innovative solutions that improve the operational efficiency of transit agencies, as well as enhance the mobility of transit users affected by the hair loss treatment public health emergency. Demonstration grants buy cheap propecia online under this NOFO are authorized under FTA's Public Transportation Innovation Program (49 U.S.C. 5312). Eligible projects will demonstrate innovative solutions to improve the operational efficiencies of transit systems and enhance mobility for their communities in four major areas.

(1) Vehicle, buy cheap propecia online facility, equipment and infrastructure cleaning and dis. (2) exposure mitigation measures. (3) innovative mobility such as contactless payments. And (4) measures that strengthen public buy cheap propecia online confidence in transit services.

The total funding available for awards under this NOFO is $10,000,000. FTA may buy cheap propecia online supplement this amount if additional funding becomes available. Applicants must submit completed proposals for funding opportunity FTA-2020-015-TRI through the GRANTS.GOV “APPLY” function by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on November 2, 2020.

Prospective applicants should register as soon as possible on the GRANTS.GOV website to ensure they can complete the buy cheap propecia online application process before the submission deadline. Application instructions are available on FTA's website at http://transit.dot.gov/​howtoapply and in the “FIND” module of GRANTS.GOV. FTA will not accept mail and fax submissions. Start Further Info Please send any questions on this notice to Jamel buy cheap propecia online El-Hamri email.

Jamel.El-Hamri@dot.gov phone. 2020-366-8985. A Telecommunication Device for the Deaf (TDD) is available for individuals who buy cheap propecia online are deaf or hard of hearing at 1-800-877-8339. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information Table of Contents A.

Program Description B. Federal Award buy cheap propecia online Information C. Eligibility Information D. Application and Submission Information buy cheap propecia online E.

Application Review Information F. Federal Award Administration Information G. Federal Awarding Agency Contact Information buy cheap propecia online A. Program Description The Public Transportation hair loss treatment Research Demonstration Grant Program is funded through the Public Transportation Innovation Program (49 U.S.C.

5312), with the goal to develop, deploy, and demonstrate innovative solutions that improve the operational efficiency of transit agencies, as well as enhance the mobility of transit users affected by the hair loss treatment public health emergency. Eligible projects will propose to develop and deploy buy cheap propecia online innovative solutions in four major areas. (1) Vehicle, facility, equipment and infrastructure cleaning and dis. (2) exposure mitigation measures.

(3) innovative mobility such buy cheap propecia online as contactless payments. And (4) measures that strengthen public confidence in transit. As required buy cheap propecia online by 49 U.S.C. 5312(e)(4), projects funded under this NOFO must participate in an evaluation by an independent outside entity that will conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the success or failure of the projects funded under this subsection and any plan for broad-based implementation of the innovation promoted by successful projects.

B. Federal Award Information FTA makes available $10,000,000 in fiscal year (FY) 2020 funds under the Public Transportation Innovation Program buy cheap propecia online (49 U.S.C. 5312) to finance the Public Transportation hair loss treatment Research Demonstration Grant Program. FTA may supplement the total funds available if additional funding becomes available at the time project selections are made.

FTA will grant pre-award authority starting buy cheap propecia online on the date of the project award announcement for selected projects and should be completed within 24 months from the date of award. Funds are available only for eligible expenses incurred after the announcement of project selections. C. Eligibility Information (1) Eligible Applicants Eligible applicants include State and local governmental authorities, direct recipients of buy cheap propecia online Urbanized Area (49 U.S.C.

5307) and Rural Area (49 U.S.C. 5311) formula funds, and Indian tribes. Eligible applicants are limited to FTA grantees or subrecipients who would be the primary beneficiaries of the innovative products and services that are developed—typically buy cheap propecia online public transit agencies. Except for projects proposed by Indian tribes, proposals for projects in rural (non-urbanized) areas must be submitted as part of a consolidated State proposal.

States and other eligible applicants also may submit consolidated proposals buy cheap propecia online for projects in urbanized areas. The submission of the Statewide application will not preclude the submission and consideration of any application from other eligible recipients in an urbanized area in a State. Proposals may contain projects to be implemented by the recipient or its subrecipients. Eligible subrecipients include public agencies, private buy cheap propecia online nonprofit organizations, and private providers engaged in public transportation.

Eligible applicants may submit consolidated proposals for projects. (2) Cost Sharing or Matching The maximum Federal share of project costs is 100 percent. FTA may give additional consideration to applicants that propose a local share and may view these applicants as more buy cheap propecia online competitive. The applicant must document the source(s) of the local match, if any, in the grant application.

For any applicants proposing match, eligible local match sources include the following. Cash from buy cheap propecia online non-Government sources other than revenues from providing public transportation services. Revenues derived from the sale of advertising and concessions. Revenues generated from value capture financing mechanisms.

Funds from an undistributed cash surplus buy cheap propecia online. Replacement or depreciation cash fund or reserve. New capital buy cheap propecia online. Or in-kind contributions.

(3) Eligible Projects Eligible projects will propose innovative solutions to improve operational efficiencies of transit agencies and enhance the mobility of transit users, through projects that demonstrate innovative solutions for. Vehicle, facility, equipment and infrastructure cleaning and buy cheap propecia online dis. Exposure mitigation measures such a real-time notification of rail and bus passenger loads. New multi-modal payment innovative mobility systems such as contactless payments.

And measures that strengthen public buy cheap propecia online confidence in transit. Each applicant may only submit one proposal.Start Printed Page 63655 D. Application and Submission Information (1) Address and Form of Application Submission Applications must be submitted through GRANTS.GOV. Applicants can find general information for submitting applications through GRANTS.GOV at www.fta.dot.gov/​howtoapply, along with specific instructions for the buy cheap propecia online forms and attachments required for submission.

Mail and fax submissions will not be accepted. (2) Content and Form of Application Submission a. Proposal Submission A buy cheap propecia online complete proposal submission consists of at least two forms. 1.

The SF-424 Mandatory Form buy cheap propecia online (downloadable from GRANTS.GOV) and 2. The supplemental form for the FY 2020 hair loss treatment Demonstration Program (downloadable from GRANTS.GOV), which is available on FTA's website at (placeholder for FTA hair loss treatment Demonstration Program). The application must include responses to all sections of the SF-424 mandatory form and the supplemental form unless a section is indicated as optional. FTA will use the buy cheap propecia online information on the supplemental form to determine applicant and project eligibility for the program and to evaluate the proposal against the selection criteria described in part E of this notice.

FTA will accept only one supplemental form per SF-424 submission. FTA encourages applicants to consider submitting a single supplemental form that includes multiple activities to be evaluated as a consolidated proposal. Applicants may buy cheap propecia online attach additional supporting information to the SF-424 submission, including but not limited to letters of support, project budgets, or excerpts from relevant planning documents. Supporting documentation must be described and referenced by file name in the appropriate response section of the supplemental form, or it may not be reviewed.

Information such as applicant name, Federal amount requested, local match amount, description of areas served, etc., may be requested in varying degrees of detail on both the SF-424 form and supplemental form. Applicants must fill buy cheap propecia online in all fields unless stated otherwise on the forms. If applicants copy information into the supplemental form from another source, they should verify that the supplemental form has fully captured pasted text and that it has not truncated the text due to character limits built into the form. Applicants should use both the buy cheap propecia online “Check Package for Errors” and the “Validate Form” validation buttons on both forms to check all required fields.

Applicants should also ensure that the Federal and local amounts specified are consistent. Addressing the deteriorating conditions and disproportionately high fatality rates on our rural transportation infrastructure is of critical interest to the Department, as rural transportation networks face unique challenges in safety, infrastructure condition, and passenger and freight usage. Consistent with the buy cheap propecia online R.O.U.T.E.S. Initiative, the Department encourages applicants to consider how the project will address the challenges faced by rural areas.

B. Application Content buy cheap propecia online The SF-424 Mandatory Form and the supplemental form will prompt applicants for the required information, including. I. Applicant Name ii.

Dun and Bradstreet (D&B) Data Universal buy cheap propecia online Numbering System (DUNS) number iii. Key contact information (contact name, address, email address, and phone number) iv. Congressional district(s) where project will take place v. Project Information buy cheap propecia online (title, executive summary, and type) vi.

A detailed description of the need for the project vii. A detailed description of how the project will support the buy cheap propecia online Program objectives viii. Evidence that the applicant can provide the local cost shares ix. A description of the technical, legal, and financial capacity of the applicant x.

A detailed project budget buy cheap propecia online xi. Details on the local matching funds xii. A detailed project timeline xiii. Whether the project buy cheap propecia online impacts an Opportunity Zone (3) Unique Entity Identifier and System for Award Management (SAM) Each applicant is required to.

(1) Be registered in SAM before submitting an application. (2) provide a valid unique entity identifier in its application. And (3) continue to maintain an active SAM registration with current information at all times during which the applicant has an buy cheap propecia online active Federal award or an application or plan under consideration by FTA. These requirements do not apply if the applicant.

(1) Is excepted from the requirements under 2 CFR 25.110(b) or (c). Or (2) has an exception approved by FTA buy cheap propecia online under 2 CFR 25.110(d). FTA may not make an award until the applicant has complied with all applicable unique entity identifier and SAM requirements. If an applicant has not fully complied with the requirements by the time FTA is ready to make an award, FTA may determine that the applicant is not qualified to receive an award and use buy cheap propecia online that determination as a basis for making a Federal award to another applicant.

All applicants must provide a unique entity identifier provided by SAM. Registration in SAM may take as little as 3-5 business days, but there can be unexpected steps or delays. For example, the applicant may need to obtain an Employer Identification Number buy cheap propecia online. FTA recommends allowing ample time, up to several weeks, to complete all steps.

For additional information on obtaining a unique entity identifier, please visit www.sam.gov. (4) Submission Dates and Times Project proposals must be submitted electronically through GRANTS.GOV buy cheap propecia online by 11:59 p.m. Eastern on November 2, 2020. Mail and fax submissions will not be accepted.

FTA urges applicants to submit applications at least 72 hours prior to the due date to buy cheap propecia online allow time to correct any problems that may have caused either GRANTS.GOV or FTA systems to reject the submission. Proposals submitted after the deadline will only be considered under extraordinary circumstances not within the applicant's control. Deadlines will buy cheap propecia online not be extended due to scheduled website maintenance. GRANTS.GOV scheduled maintenance and outage times are announced on the GRANTS.GOV website.

Within 48 hours after submitting an electronic application, the applicant should receive two email messages from GRANTS.GOV. (1) Confirmation of successful transmission to GRANTS.GOV buy cheap propecia online. And (2) confirmation of successful validation by GRANTS.GOV. If the applicant does not receive confirmation of successful validation or receives a notice of failed validation or incomplete materials, the applicant must address the reason for the failed validation, as described in the email notice, and resubmit before the submission deadline.

If making a resubmission for any reason, applicants must include all original buy cheap propecia online attachments regardless of which attachments were updated and check the box on the supplemental form indicating this is a resubmission. Applicants are encouraged to begin the process of registration on the GRANTS.GOV site well in advance of the submission deadline. Registration is Start Printed Page 63656a multi-step process, which may take several weeks to complete before an application can be submitted. Registered applicants may still be required to update their buy cheap propecia online registration before submitting an application.

Registration in SAM is renewed annually and persons making submissions on behalf of the Authorized Organization Representative (AOR) must be authorized in GRANTS.GOV by the AOR to make submissions. (5) Funding Restrictions Funds may be used for post-award expenditures only. Funds under buy cheap propecia online this NOFO cannot be used to reimburse projects for otherwise eligible expenses incurred prior to the date of project award announcements. (6) Other Submission Requirements FTA encourages applicants to identify scaled funding options in case insufficient funding is available to fund a project at the full requested amount.

If an applicant indicates that a project is scalable, the applicant must provide an appropriate minimum funding amount that will fund an eligible project that buy cheap propecia online achieves the objectives of the program and meets all relevant program requirements. The applicant must provide a clear explanation of how a reduced award would affect the project budget and scope. FTA may award a lesser amount whether or not the applicant provides a scalable option. E.

Application Review Information (1) Project Evaluation Criteria Addressing the deteriorating conditions and disproportionately high fatality rates on our rural transportation infrastructure is of critical interest to the Department, as rural transportation networks face unique challenges in safety, infrastructure condition, and passenger and freight usage. Consistent with the R.O.U.T.E.S. Initiative, the Department will consider how the project will address the challenges faced by rural areas. In addition, the Department will review and consider applications for funding pursuant to this Notice in accordance with the President's September 2, 2020 memorandum, entitled Memorandum on Reviewing Funding to State and Local Government Recipients of Federal Funds that Are Permitting Anarchy, Violence, and Destruction in American Cities, consistent with guidance from the Office of Management and Budget and the Attorney General and with all applicable laws.

FTA will evaluate proposals submitted according to the following criteria. (a) Project Innovation and Impact. (b) Project Approach. (c) National Applicability.

(d) Commercialization and/or Knowledge Transfer. And (e) Technical, Legal and Financial Capacity. FTA encourages each applicant to demonstrate how a project supports all criteria with the most relevant information the applicant can provide, regardless of whether such information has been specifically requested or identified in this notice. A.

Project Innovation and Impact i. Effectiveness of the project in achieving and demonstrating the specific objectives of this program. Ii. Demonstration of benefits in addressing the needs of the transit agency and industry and impacts to infrastructure, equipment, transit workforce, and riders.

Iii. Degree of improvement over current and existing technologies, designs, and/or practices applicable to the transit industry. B. Project Approach i.

Quality of the project approach such as existing partnerships, collaboration strategies and level of commitment of the project partners. Ii. Proposal is realistic in its approach to fulfill the milestones/deliverables, schedule and goals. C.

National Applicability i. Degree to which the project could be replicated by other transit agencies regionally or nationally. Ii. Ability to evaluate technologies, designs and/or practices in a wide variety of conditions and locales.

Iii. Degree to which the technology, designs and/or practices can be replicated by other transportation modes. D. Commercialization and/or Knowledge Transfer i.

Demonstrates a realistic plan for moving the results of the project into the transit marketplace (patents, conferences, articles in trade magazines, webinar, site visits, etc.). Ii. How the project team plans to work with the industry on improving best practices, guidance and/or standards, if applicable. Iii.

Demonstrate a clear understanding and robust approach to data collection, access and management. E. Technical, Legal and Financial Capacity Capacity of the applicant and any partners to successfully execute the project effort. There should be no outstanding legal, technical, or financial issues with the applicant that would make this a high-risk project.

(2) Review and Selection Process An FTA technical evaluation committee will evaluate proposals based on the published project evaluation criteria. Members of the technical evaluation committee will rate the applications and may seek clarification about any statement in an application. The FTA Administrator will determine the final selection and amount of funding for each project after consideration of the findings of the technical evaluation committee. Geographic diversity, diversity of the project type, the amount of local match to be provided, and the applicant's receipt and management of other Federal transit funds may be considered in FTA's award decisions.

Prior fare payment innovation efforts may receive priority consideration. The FTA Administrator will consider the following key DOT objectives. A. Utilizing alternative funding sources and innovative financing models to attract non-Federal sources of investment.

B. Whether the project is located in or supports public transportation service in a qualified opportunity zone designated pursuant to 26.U.S.C. 1400Z-1. And c.

The extent to which the project addresses challenges specific to the provision of rural public transportation. (3) FAPIIS Review Prior to making a grant award, FTA is required to review and consider any information about the applicant that is in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS) accessible through SAM. An applicant may review and comment on information about itself that a Federal awarding agency previously entered. FTA will consider any comments by the applicant, in addition to the other information in FAPIIS, in making a judgment about the applicant's integrity, business ethics, and record of performance under Federal awards when completing the review of risk posed by applicants as described in 2 CFR 200.205 Federal Awarding Agency Review of Risk Posed by Applicants.

F. Federal Award Administration Information (1) Federal Award Notices FTA will announce the final project selections on the FTA website. Project recipients should contact their FTA Regional Office for additional information regarding allocations for Start Printed Page 63657projects. At the time project selections are announced, FTA will extend pre-award authority for the selected projects.

There is no blanket pre-award authority for these projects before announcement. There is no minimum or maximum grant award amount, but FTA intends to fund as many meritorious projects as possible. FTA only will consider proposals from eligible recipients for eligible activities. Due to funding limitations, projects selected for funding may receive less than the amount originally requested.

In those cases, applicants must be able to demonstrate that the proposed projects are still viable and can be completed with the amount awarded. (2) Administrative and National Policy Requirements a. Pre-Award Authority FTA will issue specific guidance to recipients regarding pre-award authority at the time of selection. FTA does not provide pre-award authority for competitive funds until projects are selected, and there are Federal requirements that must be met before costs are incurred.

For more information about FTA's policy on pre-award authority, see the FY 2020 Apportionments Notice published on June 3, 2020, at https://www.govinfo.gov/​content/​pkg/​FR-2020-06-03/​pdf/​2020-11946.pdf. b. Grant Requirements Selected applicants will submit a grant application through FTA's electronic grant management system and adhere to the customary FTA grant requirements for research project (insert Circular name). All competitive grants, regardless of award amount, will be subject to the Congressional notification and release process.

FTA emphasizes that third-party procurement applies to all funding awards, as described in FTA Circular 4220.1F, “Third Party Contracting Guidance.” However, FTA may approve applications that include a specifically identified partnering organization(s) (2 CFR 200.302(f)). When included, the application, budget, and budget narrative should provide a clear understanding of how the selection of these organizations is critical for the project and give sufficient detail about the costs involved. C. Planning FTA encourages applicants to engage the appropriate State Departments of Transportation, Regional Transportation Planning Organizations, or Metropolitan Planning Organizations in areas to be served by the project funds available under this program.

D. Standard Assurances The applicant assures that it will comply with all applicable Federal statutes, regulations, executive orders, FTA circulars, and other Federal administrative requirements in carrying out any project supported by the FTA grant. The applicant acknowledges that it is under a continuing obligation to comply with the terms and conditions of the grant agreement issued for its project with FTA. The applicant understands that Federal laws, regulations, policies, and administrative practices might be modified from time to time and may affect the implementation of the project.

The applicant agrees that the most recent Federal requirements will apply to the project unless FTA issues a written determination otherwise. The applicant must submit the Certifications and Assurances before receiving a grant if it does not have current certifications on file. E. Free Speech and Religious Liberty In connection with any program or activity conducted with or benefiting from funds awarded under this notice, recipients of funds must comply with all applicable requirements of Federal law, including, without limitation, the Constitution of the United States.

Statutory, regulatory, and public policy requirements, including without limitation, those protecting free speech, religious liberty, public welfare, the environment, and prohibiting discrimination. The conditions of performance, non-discrimination requirements, and other assurances made applicable to the award of funds in accordance with regulations of the Department of Transportation. And applicable Federal financial assistance and contracting principles promulgated by the Office of Management and Budget. In complying with these requirements, recipients must ensure that no concession agreements are denied or other contracting decisions made on the basis of speech or other activities protected by the First Amendment.

If the Department determines that a recipient has failed to comply with applicable Federal requirements, the Department may terminate the award of funds and disallow previously incurred costs, requiring the recipient to reimburse any expended award funds. (3) Reporting The post-award reporting requirements include submission of the Federal Financial Report (FFR) and Milestone Progress Report in TrAMS. An evaluation of the grant will occur at various points in the demonstration process and at the end of the project. In addition, FTA is responsible for producing an Annual Report to Congress that compiles evaluation of selected projects, including an evaluation of the performance measures identified by the applicants.

All applicants must develop an evaluation plan to measure the success or failure of their projects and describe any plans for broad-based implementation of successful projects. FTA may request data and reports to support the evaluation and Annual Report. A. Independent Evaluation To achieve a comprehensive understanding of the impacts and implications of each proposed hair loss treatment Research Demonstration Program, projects funded under this announcement will require the recipient to conduct a third party independent evaluation of their project.

Recipients will be required to contract with a third party independent evaluator to assist in developing an evaluation plan, and collecting, storing and managing data required to fulfill the evaluation requirement. No more than 10 percent of the Federal share of the project may be used to hire the third-party independent evaluator and the inclusion of a third-party independent evaluation should be described in the grant application. If the project duration is more than two years, an interim evaluation report would need to be submitted to FTA, otherwise the evaluation report should be included as part of the final project report. B.

hair loss treatment Research Demonstration Grant Program Evaluation Projects funded under this announcement will be required to establish a set of performance metrics set by the third-party independent evaluator and shared with FTA. G. Federal Awarding Agency Contacts Information For questions about applying, please contact Jamel El-Hamri email. Jamel.El-Hamri@dot.gov phone.

202-366-8985. A TDD is available at 1-800-877-8339 (TDDFIRS). To ensure that applicants receive accurate information about eligibility or the program, applicants are encouraged to contact FTA directly with questions, rather than through intermediaries or third parties.Start Printed Page 63658 FTA staff also may conduct briefings on the competitive grants selection and award process upon request. Start Signature K.

Jane Williams, Deputy Administrator. End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc. 2020-22316 Filed 10-7-20. 8:45 am]BILLING CODE 4910-57-PStart Preamble Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services.

Notice. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of Infectious Disease and HIV/AIDS Policy (OIDP) in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health (OASH) announces the draft Viral Hepatitis National Strategic Plan. A Roadmap to Elimination (2021-2025) (Hepatitis Plan) available for public comment. The draft Hepatitis Plan may be reviewed at www.hhs.gov/​hepatitis.

All comments must be received by 5:00 p.m. ET on October 8, 2020 to ensure consideration. All comments must be submitted electronically to HepatitisPlanComments@hhs.gov. Start Further Info Carol Jimenez, OIDP, Carol.Jimenez@hhs.gov.

202-401-5131. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information Viral hepatitis is a significant public health threat that puts people who are infected at increased risk for serious disease and death. In the United States, new hepatitis A and hepatitis C s have increased dramatically in recent years, little progress has been made on preventing hepatitis B s, and, as of 2016, an estimated 3.3 million people were chronically infected with hepatitis B and hepatitis C.1-3 Collectively, viral hepatitis costs people, health systems, states, and the federal government billions of dollars each year 4 5 and contributes to substantial health disparities, stigma, and discrimination. Reversing the rates of viral hepatitis, preventing new s, and improving care and treatment require a strategic and coordinated approach by federal partners in collaboration with state and local health departments, tribal communities, community-based organizations, and other nonfederal partners and stakeholders.

To spur action to reduce new viral hepatitis s and their adverse public health impact, OASH through OIDP, in collaboration with federal partners throughout HHS and other departments, led and coordinated development of the Hepatitis Plan. Opportunities for public input were provided, and public comments received were reviewed and analyzed and helped inform the components of the Hepatitis Plan. The Hepatitis Plan focuses on hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C—the hepatitis propeciaes that most significantly affect the health of the nation. It is an elimination plan, with the overarching goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a public health threat in the United States by 2030.

The Hepatitis Plan is intended to serve as a roadmap for all stakeholders at all levels to eliminate hepatitis in this nation. The Hepatitis Plan presents a strategic framework for integrating and leveraging synergistic policies, programs, and resources. It sets forth a vision and five goals for the nation, with objectives and strategies for each goal. The objectives and strategies offered in this plan are interrelated and may be used to make progress toward more than one goal.

The Hepatitis Plan identifies disproportionately impacted populations based on national hepatitis incidence, prevalence, and mortality data, to help federal and other stakeholders focus their efforts to realize the greatest impact. The Hepatitis Plan also includes indicators to measure progress and quantitative targets for each indicator. Although it is a 5-year plan, it sets 10-year quantitative targets for each indicator—reflecting the reality that it will take more than 5 years to eliminate viral hepatitis as a public health threat. The order in which the goals, objectives, strategies, and indicators are presented is not associated with any prioritization.

The following are the Hepatitis Plan's vision and goals. Vision. The United States will be a place where new viral hepatitis s are prevented, every person knows their status, and every person with viral hepatitis has high-quality health care and treatment and lives free from stigma and discrimination. This vision includes all people, regardless of age, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, geographic location, or socioeconomic circumstance.

Goals. 1. Prevent New Viral Hepatitis s 2. Improve Viral Hepatitis—Related Health Outcomes of People with Viral Hepatitis 3.

Reduce Viral Hepatitis—Related Disparities and Health Inequities 4. Improve Viral Hepatitis Surveillance and Data Usage 5. Achieve Integrated, Coordinated Efforts That Address the Viral Hepatitis Epidemics among All Partners and Stakeholders A roadmap for stakeholders at all levels and sectors, the Hepatitis Plan envisions a whole-of-nation response to preventing and controlling viral hepatitis in the United States. The Hepatitis Plan assumes the active participation of state, local, and tribal health departments and organizations, health plans and health care providers, schools and other academic institutions, community- and faith-based organizations, scientists, researchers, and the public in this effort.

The priority populations, indicators, and quantitative targets, especially the methods used to determine them, are intended to help focus efforts and limited resources to realize the most impact. Stakeholders are encouraged to focus on activities that resonate the most with the needs of the populations they serve and services they provide, and, using the Hepatitis Plan as a framework, develop their own plans to eliminate viral hepatitis and improve the health of their communities, states, tribal nations, and the nation. Information Needs The draft Hepatitis Plan may be reviewed at. Www.hhs.gov/​hepatitis.

OIDP seeks to obtain feedback from external stakeholders on the following. 1. Do the draft plan's goals, objectives, and strategies appropriately address the viral hepatitis epidemics?. 2.

Are there any critical gaps in the Hepatitis Plan's goals, objectives, and strategies?. If so, please specify the gaps. 3. Do any of the Hepatitis Plan's goals, objectives and strategies cause concern?.

If so, please specify the goal, objective or strategy, and describe the concern regarding it. Each commenter is limited to a maximum of seven pages. Start Authority 77 FR 15761 (March 16, 2012). End Authority Start Signature Dated.

September 22, 2020. B. Kaye Hayes, Acting Director, Office of Infectious Disease and HIV/AIDS Policy. End Signature Footnotes 1.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral Hepatitis Surveillance—Start Printed Page 60814United States, 2018. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

2020. Accessed August 9, 2020. Https://www.cdc.gov/​hepatitis/​statistics/​2018surveillance/​index.htm. 2.

Hofmeister MG, Rosenthal EM, Barker LK, et al. Estimating prevalence of hepatitis C propecia in the United States, 2013-2016. Hepatology. 2019 Mar;69(3):1020-1031.

Screening for hepatitis B propecia in nonpregnant adolescents and adults. US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Annals Internal Med. 2014;161(1):58-66.

4. Morey RJ, Collier MG, Nelson NP. The financial burden of public health responses to hepatitis A cases among food handlers, 2012-2014. Public Health Rep.

2017;132(4):443-447. Doi:10.1177/0033354917710947. 5. Wittenborn J, Brady J, Dougherty M, Rein D.

Potential epidemiologic, economic, and budgetary impacts of current rates of hepatitis C treatment in Medicare and non-Medicare populations. Hepatol Commun. 2017;1(2):99-109. Doi:10.1002/hep4.1031.

End Supplemental Information [FR Doc. 2020-21288 Filed 9-25-20. 8:45 am]BILLING CODE 4150-43-P.

Effects of propecia on pregnancy

WEDNESDAY, Sept effects of propecia on pregnancy. 1, 2021 (HealthDay News) -- A woman who calls herself AntiVaxMomma on social media faces a number of charges for selling fake hair loss treatment vaccination cards, New York prosecutors said Tuesday. They allege that Jasmine Clifford, of Lyndhurst, N.J., effects of propecia on pregnancy sold about 250 fake vaccination cards via her Instagram account in recent months, the Associated Press reported.

Clifford provided the bogus cards for $200 each to people in the New York City area, including some employees of hospitals and nursing homes, according to prosecutors. They also said that for an extra $250, Clifford's alleged co-conspirator, Nadayza Barkley, of Bellport, L.I., entered a fake card buyer's name into a New York State vaccination database used to confirm treatment status at venues such as sporting events and concerts, effects of propecia on pregnancy the AP reported. Barkley entered at least 10 names into the state's treatment database while working at a Patchogue medical clinic, according to prosecutors.

Clifford was charged with offering effects of propecia on pregnancy a false instrument, criminal possession of a forged instrument and conspiracy, and Barkley was charged with offering a false instrument and conspiracy. Thirteen alleged buyers of the fake cards were also charged, the AP reported. Manhattan District Attorney Cyrus Vance effects of propecia on pregnancy Jr.

Called on Facebook, which owns Instagram, and other tech companies to crack down on treatment card scams, saying in a statement that "the stakes are too high to tackle fake vaccination cards with whack-a-mole prosecutions."Facebook said that it prohibits anyone from buying or selling hair loss treatment cards and that it removed Clifford's account in early August for breaking its rules."We will review any other accounts that might be doing the same thing," the company said in a written statement. "We appreciate the DA's work on this matter and will remove this content whenever we find it." The sale of fake treatment cards is a growing concern as more places require proof of vaccination to work, eat in restaurants, and participate in effects of propecia on pregnancy daily activities. In May, the owner of a Northern California bar was arrested after he allegedly sold made-to-order fake hair loss treatment vaccination cards for $20 each, the AP reported, and a naturopathic physician in Northern California was arrested in June on charges she sold fake hair loss treatments and vaccination cards.Two tourists were arrested this month for allegedly using fake treatment cards to travel into Hawaii, and U.S.

Sen. Chuck Schumer has called on federal law enforcement agencies to target online sales of fake hair loss treatment vaccination cards, the AP reported. More information Visit the U.S.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for more on hair loss treatments. SOURCE. Associated Press.

WEDNESDAY, Sept buy cheap propecia online. 1, 2021 (HealthDay News) -- A woman who calls herself AntiVaxMomma on social media faces a number of charges for selling fake hair loss treatment vaccination cards, New York prosecutors said Tuesday. They allege that Jasmine Clifford, of Lyndhurst, N.J., sold about 250 fake buy cheap propecia online vaccination cards via her Instagram account in recent months, the Associated Press reported. Clifford provided the bogus cards for $200 each to people in the New York City area, including some employees of hospitals and nursing homes, according to prosecutors. They also said that for an extra $250, Clifford's alleged co-conspirator, Nadayza Barkley, of Bellport, L.I., entered buy cheap propecia online a fake card buyer's name into a New York State vaccination database used to confirm treatment status at venues such as sporting events and concerts, the AP reported.

Barkley entered at least 10 names into the state's treatment database while working at a Patchogue medical clinic, according to prosecutors. Clifford was charged with offering a false instrument, criminal possession of buy cheap propecia online a forged instrument and conspiracy, and Barkley was charged with offering a false instrument and conspiracy. Thirteen alleged buyers of the fake cards were also charged, the AP reported. Manhattan District buy cheap propecia online Attorney Cyrus Vance Jr. Called on Facebook, which owns Instagram, and other tech companies to crack down on treatment card scams, saying in a statement that "the stakes are too high to tackle fake vaccination cards with whack-a-mole prosecutions."Facebook said that it prohibits anyone from buying or selling hair loss treatment cards and that it removed Clifford's account in early August for breaking its rules."We will review any other accounts that might be doing the same thing," the company said in a written statement.

"We appreciate the DA's work on this matter and will remove this content whenever we find it." The sale of fake buy cheap propecia online treatment cards is a growing concern as more places require proof of vaccination to work, eat in restaurants, and participate in daily activities. In May, the owner of a Northern California bar was arrested after he allegedly sold made-to-order fake hair loss treatment vaccination cards for $20 each, the AP reported, and a naturopathic physician in Northern California was arrested in June on charges she sold fake hair loss treatments and vaccination cards.Two tourists were arrested this month for allegedly using fake treatment cards to travel into Hawaii, and U.S. Sen. Chuck Schumer has called on federal law enforcement agencies to target online sales of fake hair loss treatment vaccination cards, the AP reported. More information Visit the U.S.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for more on hair loss treatments. SOURCE. Associated Press.

Propecia 20 year study

IntroductionEarly life is regarded as a crucial period of neurobiological, emotional, propecia 20 year study social and physical development in all animal species and may have long-term implications for health across the life course. The first studies propecia 20 year study examining the preadult origins of chronic disease were probably published more than 50 years ago and based on rodent models.1 By briefly administering a suboptimal diet to newborn mice, Dubos and others1 demonstrated a marked impact on subsequent growth and resistance to . In the 1970s, Forsdahl,2 using infant mortality rates as a proxy for living conditions at birth, arguably provided the first evidence in humans for an association with heart disease in later life. In the last two decades, findings from longitudinal studies with extended mortality and morbidity surveillance have implicated a host of preadult characteristics as potential risk factors for several chronic disease outcomes, including perinatal and postnatal growth,3 coordination,4 intelligence,5 6 mental health,7 overweight,8 9 physical stature,10 raised blood pressure,11 12 cigarette smoking,13 physical strength14 and diet15 among many others.16An array of prospective studies has also demonstrated associations of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage–indexed by paternal social class or education, the presence of household amenities and domestic overcrowding—with somatic health outcomes in adulthood, chiefly premature mortality and cardiovascular disease.17 18 Parallel work has been undertaken by psychologists and psychiatrists exploring the consequences of childhood maeatment for later psychopathologies—perhaps the most well examined health endpoint in this context.19 20 Collectively, these early life circumstances propecia 20 year study have been more widely defined to comprise the separate themes of material deprivation (eg, economic hardship and long-term unemployment). Stressful family dynamics (eg, physical and emotional abuse, psychiatric illness or substance abuse propecia 20 year study by a family member).

Loss or threat of loss (eg, death or serious illness …INTRODUCTIONSevere acute respiratory syndrome hair loss 2 (hair loss), causative agent of hair loss disease (hair loss treatment), emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019. On 11 March 2020, the World propecia 20 year study Health Organization (WHO) declared hair loss treatment a propecia, with over 10 million confirmed cases as of the beginning of July 2020.1 2 The first patient in the Netherlands was confirmed on 27 February 2020.3 Cases primarily clustered in the southeastern part of the country, but were reported in other regions quickly hereafter. Multi-pronged interventions to suppress the spread of the propecia, including social distancing, school and bar/restaurant closure, and stringent advice to home quarantine when feeling ill and work from home, were implemented on 16 March 2020—and were relaxed gradually since 1 June 2020. By 1 July 2020, 50 273 cases, 11 877 hospitalisations, and 6113 related deaths were reported in the propecia 20 year study Netherlands.3Supplemental materialReported hair loss treatment cases worldwide are an underestimation of the true magnitude of the propecia. The scope of undetected cases remains largely unknown due to difference in restrictive testing policy and registration across countries, and occurrence of asymptomatic s.4 5 Large-scale nationwide serosurveillance studies measuring hair loss-specific serum antibodies could help propecia 20 year study to better assess the number of s, viral spread, and groups at risk of in the general population by incorporating extensive questionnaire data, for example, on lifestyle, behaviour and profession.

This might yield different factors than those identified for (severely-ill) clinical cases investigated more frequently up until now.6 7 Unfortunately, such nationwide studies (eg, in Spain8 and Iceland,9) also referred to as Unity Studies by the WHO,10 are scarce and mainly set up through convenience sampling.Therefore, a nationwide serosurveillance study (PIENTER-Corona, PICO) was initiated quickly after the lockdown was in effect. This cohort is unique as it comprises data available from a previous serosurvey established in 2016/17 (PIENTER-3) of a randomised nationwide sample of Dutch citizens, across all ages and a separate sample enriched for Orthodox-Reformed Protestants, whom might have been exposed to hair loss more frequently due to their socio-geographical-clustered lifestyle.11 12 The presented serological framework and findings propecia 20 year study of our first round of inclusion can support public health policy in the Netherlands as well as internationally.METHODSStudy designIn 2016/17, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment of the Netherlands (RIVM) initiated a large-scale nationwide serosurveillance study (PIENTER-3) (n=7600. Age-range 0–89 years). The primary aim was to obtain insights into the protection against treatment-preventable diseases offered propecia 20 year study by the National Immunisation Programme in the Netherlands. A comprehensive description of PIENTER-3 has been published previously.13 Briefly, participants were selected via a two-stage cluster design, comprising 40 municipalities in five regions nationwide (henceforth ‘national sample’, propecia 20 year study NS), and nine municipalities in the low vaccination coverage municipalities (LVC), inhabited by a relative large proportion of Orthodox-Reformed Protestants (figure 1).

Among other materials, sera and questionnaire data had been collected from all participants. Hence, the PIENTER-3 study acted as baseline sample of the Dutch population for the present cross-sectional PICO-study since propecia 20 year study 6102 participants (80%) consented to be approached for follow-up (after updating addresses and screening of possible deaths). The study was powered to estimate an overall seroprevalence with a precision of at least 2.5%.13 The PICO-study protocol was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee MEC-U, the Netherlands (Clinical Trial Registration NTR8473), and conformed to the principles embodied in the Declaration of Helsinki.Geographical representation of number of participants in the PICO-study, the Netherlands, first round of inclusion, per municipality. The size propecia 20 year study of the dots reflect the absolute number of participants. Thicker grey propecia 20 year study and smaller light grey boundaries represent provinces and municipalities, respectively, and orange and blue boundaries characterise municipalities from the national and low vaccination coverage sample, respectively." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Geographical representation of number of participants in the PICO-study, the Netherlands, first round of inclusion, per municipality.

The size of the dots reflect the absolute number of participants. Thicker grey and smaller light grey boundaries represent provinces and municipalities, respectively, and orange and blue boundaries characterise municipalities from the national and low vaccination coverage sample, respectively.Study population and materialsOn propecia 20 year study 25 March 2020, an invitation letter was sent. Invitees (age-range 2–92 years) willing to participate registered online. After enrolment, participants received an instruction letter on how to self-collect a fingerstick blood sample in propecia 20 year study a microtainer (maximum of 0.3 mL). Blood samples were returned to the propecia 20 year study RIVM-laboratory in safety envelopes.

Serum samples were stored at −20°C awaiting analyses. Materials were propecia 20 year study collected between March 31 and May 11, with the majority (80%) in the first week of April 2020 (median collection date April 3). Simultaneous with the blood collection, participants were asked to complete an (online) questionnaire, including questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, hair loss treatment-related symptoms, and potential other determinants for hair loss seropositivity, such as comorbidities, medication use and behavioural factors. All participants provided written informed propecia 20 year study consent.Laboratory methodsSerum samples (diluted 1:200) were tested for the presence of hair loss spike S1-specific IgG antibodies using a validated fluorescent bead-based multiplex-immunoassay as described.14 A cut-off concentration for seropositivity (2.37 AU/mL. With specificity of 99% and sensitivity of 84.4%) was determined by ROC-analysis of propecia 20 year study 400 pre-propecia control samples (including a nationwide random cross-sectional sample (n=108)) as well as patients with confirmed influenza-like illnesses caused by hair losses and other propeciaes, and a selection of sera from 115 PCR-confirmed hair loss treatment cases with mild, or severe disease symptoms.

Seropositive PICO-samples and those with a concentration 25% below the cut-off were retested (n=138), and the geometric mean concentration (GMC) was calculated. Paired pre-propecia PIENTER-3-samples of these retested PICO-samples (available from 129/138) were tested correspondingly as described above to correct for false-positive results (online supplemental figure S1A).Statistical analysesStudy population, hair loss treatment-related symptoms and antibody responsesData management and analyses were conducted propecia 20 year study in SAS v.9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., USA) and R v.3.6. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Sociodemographic characteristics and hair loss treatment-related symptoms (general, respiratory, and gastrointestinal) developed since the propecia 20 year study start of the epidemic were stratified by sample (NS vs LVC), or sex, respectively, and described for seropositive and seronegative participants. Differences were propecia 20 year study tested via Pearson’s χ², or Fisher’s exact test if appropriate.

Differences in GMC between reported symptoms in seropositive participants were determined by calculating the difference in log-transformed concentrations of those who developed symptoms at least 4 weeks prior to the sampling—ensuring a plateaued response—and tested by means of a Mann-Whitney U-test.Seroprevalence estimatesSeroprevalence estimates (with 95% Wilson CIs (CI)) for hair loss-specific antibodies were calculated taking into account the survey design (ie, controlling for region and municipality) and weighted by sex, age, ethnic background and degree of urbanisation to match the distribution of the general Dutch population in both the NS and LVC sample. Estimates were corrected for test performance via propecia 20 year study the Rogan &. Gladen bias correction (with sensitivity of 84.4% and assuming a specificity of 100% after cross-validation with pre-sera).15 Smooth age-specific seroprevalence estimates were obtained with a logistic regression in a Generalised Additive Model using penalised splines.16Risk factors for hair loss seropositivityA random-effects logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for hair loss seropositivity, applying a full case analysis (n=3100. Values were missing for <5% of the participants) propecia 20 year study. Potential risk factors included sociodemographic characteristics (sex, age group, region, ethnic background, Orthodox-Reformed Protestants, educational level, household size, (parent with a) contact profession, healthcare worker), and hair loss treatment-related factors (contact with a hair loss treatment confirmed case, propecia 20 year study number of persons contacted yesterday, working from home (normally and in the last week), comorbidities (combining diabetes, history of malignancy, immunodeficiency, cardio-vascular, kidney and chronic lung disease (note.

As a sensitivity analysis, comorbidities were also included separately)), and use of blood pressure medication, immunosuppressants, statins and antivirals/antibiotics in the last month). Models included a random intercept, potential clustering propecia 20 year study by municipality and region was accounted for, and odds ratios (OR) in univariable analyses were a priori adjusted for sex and age. Variables with p<0.10 were entered in the multivariable analysis, and backward selection was performed—manually dropping variables one-by-one based on p≥0.05—to identify significant risk factors. Adjusted ORs and corresponding 95% CIs were provided.RESULTSStudy populationOf 6102 invitees, propecia 20 year study 3207 (53%) donated a serum sample and filled-out the questionnaire, of which 2637 persons from the NS and 570 from the LVC. Participants from across the country propecia 20 year study participated (figure 1), with age ranging from 2 to 90 years (table 1).

In the NS, slightly more women (55%) participated, most (88%) were of Dutch descent, nearly half had a high educational level, and 45% was religious. 20 percent of persons between age 25–66 years were healthcare workers and 56% of the (parents of) participants reported to have had propecia 20 year study daily contact with patients, clients and/or children in their profession/volunteer work normally. Over half of the participants lived in a ≥2-person household, and 78% reported to have had physical contact with <5 people outside their own household yesterday (during lockdown), of which more than half with nobody. Comorbidities most frequently reported included chronic lung propecia 20 year study and cardiovascular disease (both 13%), and a history of malignancy (5%). In line with the population distribution, the LVC sample was characterised by a relative high proportion propecia 20 year study of Orthodox-Reformed Protestants from Dutch descent (table 1).

Sociodemographic characteristics between responders and non-responders are provided in online supplemental table S1.View this table:Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of participants in the PICO-study and weighted seroprevalence in the general population of the Netherlands, first round of inclusion, by national sample and low vaccination coverage sampleSupplemental materialhair loss treatment-related symptoms and antibody responsesIn total, 63% of participants reported to have had ≥1 hair loss treatment-related symptom(s) since the start of the epidemic, with runny nose (37%), headache (33%), and cough (30%) being most common (table 2). All reported propecia 20 year study symptoms were significantly higher in seropositive compared to seronegative persons, except for stomach ache. The majority of those propecia 20 year study seropositive (93%) reported to have had symptoms (90% of men vs 95% of women), of whom three already in mid-February, 2 weeks prior to the official first notification. Median duration of illness in the seropositive participants was 8.5 days (IQR. 4.0–12.5), 16% (n=12) visited ageneral propecia 20 year study practitioner and one was admitted to the hospital.

Among seropositive persons, most reported to have had ≥1 respiratory symptom(s) (86%), with runny nose and cough (both 61%) most regularly, and ≥1 general (84%) symptom(s), of which anosmia/ageusia (53%) was most discriminative as compared to the seronegative participants (4%, p<0.0001) (table 2). Symptoms were more common in women, propecia 20 year study except for anosmia/ageusia, cough and irritable/confusion. Almost 75% of the seropositive participants met the hair loss treatment case definition of fever and/or propecia 20 year study cough and/or dyspnoea, which improved to 80% when anosmia/ageusia was included—while remaining 36% in those seronegative. GMC was significantly higher among seropositive persons with fever vs without (48.2 vs 11.6 AU/mL, p=0.01), and with dyspnoea vs without (78.6 vs 13.5 AU/mL, p=0.04).View this table:Table 2 hair loss treatment-related symptoms since the start of the epidemic among all participants in the PICO-study reporting symptoms (n=3147), first round of inclusionSeroprevalence estimatesOverall weighted seroprevalence in the NS was 2.8% (95% CI 2.1 to 3.7), did not differ between sexes or ethnic backgrounds (table 1), and was not higher among healthcare workers (2.7% vs non-healthcare workers 2.5%). Seroprevalence was lowest in the northern region (1.3%) and highest in the mid-west propecia 20 year study (4.0%).

Estimates were lowest in children—gradually increasing from below 1% at age 2 years to 3% at 17 years—was highest in age group 18–39 years (4.9%) and ranged between 2 and 4% up to 90 years of age (figure 2). In both samples, seroprevalence was highest propecia 20 year study in Orthodox-Reformed Protestants (>7%) (table 1). Online supplement figure S1B displays the distribution of IgG concentrations for all participants by age, and online supplemental figure S2 ⇓shows the seroprevalence smoothed by age in the LVC.Smooth age-specific hair loss seroprevalence in the general population of the Netherlands, beginning of April 2020." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Smooth age-specific hair loss seroprevalence in the general population of the Netherlands, beginning of propecia 20 year study April 2020.Risk factors for hair loss seropositivityVariables that were associated with hair loss seropositivity in univariable analyses included age group, Orthodox-Reformed Protestant, had been in contact with a hair loss treatment case, use of immunosuppressants, and antibiotic/antiviral medication in the last month (table 3). In multivariable analysis, substantial higher odds were observed for those who took immunosuppressants the last month, were Orthodox-Reformed Protestant, had been in contact with a hair loss treatment confirmed case, and from age groups 18–24 and 25–39 years (compared to 2–12 years).View this table:Table 3 Risk factor analysis for hair loss seropositivity among all participants (n=3100. Full case analysis) in the PICO-study, first round of inclusionDISCUSSIONHere, we have estimated propecia 20 year study the seroprevalence of hair loss-specific antibodies and identified risk factors for seropositivity in the general population of the Netherlands during the first epidemic wave in April 2020.

Although overall seroprevalence was still low at this phase, important risk factors for seropositivity could be identified, including adults aged 18–39 years, persons using immunosuppressants, and Orthodox-Reformed Protestants. These data can guide future interventions, including strategies for vaccination, believed to be a realistic solution to overcome this propecia.This PICO-study revealed that 2.8% (95% CI 2.1 to 3.7) of the Dutch population had detectable hair loss-specific serum IgG antibodies, suggesting that almost half a propecia 20 year study million inhabitants (of in total 17 423 98117) were infected (487 871 (95% CI 365 904 to 644 687)) in mid-March, 2020 (taking into account the median time to seroconvert18). Several seropositive participants reported to have had hair loss treatment-related symptoms back in mid-February, suggesting the propecia circulated in our country at the propecia 20 year study beginning of February already. Our overall estimate is in line with preliminary results from another study conducted in the Netherlands in the beginning of April which found 2.7% to be seropositive, although this study was performed in healthy blood donors aged 18–79 years.19 Worldwide, various seroprevalence studies are ongoing. A large nationwide study in Spain showed that around 5% (ranging between 3.7% propecia 20 year study and 6.2%) was seropositive, indicating that only a small proportion of the population had been infected in one of the hardest hit countries in Europe.

Current studies in literature mostly cover hair loss treatment hotspots or specific regions—with possibly bias in selection of participants and/or smaller age-ranges—with rates ranging between 1–7% in April (eg, in Los Angeles County (CA, USA)20 or ten other sites in the USA,21 Geneva (Switzerland),22 and Luxembourg23). Estimates also propecia 20 year study very much depend on test performances. Particularly, when seroprevalence is relatively low, specificity of the assay should approach near propecia 20 year study 100% to diminish false-positive results and minimise overestimation. Although we cannot rule-out false-positive samples completely, our assay was validated using a broad range of positive and negative hair loss samples. PICO-samples were cross-linked to pre-propecia propecia 20 year study concentration.

And bias correction for test performance was applied to represent most accurate estimates. In addition, future studies should establish whether epidemiologically dominant genetic changes in the spike protein of hair loss influence binding to spike S1 used in our and other assays.Seroprevalence was highest in adults aged 18–39 years, which is in line with the serosurvey among blood donors in the Netherlands, but contrary to the low incidence rate as reported in Dutch surveillance, caused by restrictive testing of risk groups and healthcare workers at the beginning of the epidemic, primarily identifying severe cases.3 19 The elevation in these younger adults may be explained by increased social contacts typical for this age group, in addition to specific social activities in February, such as skiing holidays in the Alps (from where the propecia disseminated quickly across Europe), or propecia 20 year study carnival festivities in the Netherlands (ie, multiple superspreading events primarily in the mid and Southern part, explaining local elevation in seroprevalence). In correspondence with other nationwide studies8 9 and reports from the Dutch government,3 24 seroprevalence was lowest in propecia 20 year study children. Although some rare events of paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome have been reported, this group seems to be at decreased risk for developing (severe) hair loss treatment in general, which may be explained by less severe possibly resulting in a limited humoral response.25 26 Further, significantly higher odds for seropositivity were seen in Orthodox-Reformed Protestants. This community lives socio-geographically clustered in the Netherlands, that is, work, school, leisure and church are propecia 20 year study intertwined heavily.

As observed in other countries, particularly frequent attendance of church with close distance to others, including singing activities, might have fuelled the spread of hair loss within this community in the beginning of the epidemic.11 12 Whereas the comorbidities with possible increased risk of severe hair loss treatment were not associated with seropositivity in this study, immunosuppressants use did display higher odds (note. We did not have information of specific drugs) propecia 20 year study. Recent data indicate that immunosuppressive treatment is not associated with worse hair loss treatment outcomes,27 28 yet continued surveillance is warranted as propecia 20 year study these patients might be more prone to (future) , for instance due to a possible attenuated humoral immune response.29The majority of seropositive participants exhibited ≥1 symptom(s), mostly general and respiratory. A recent meta-analysis found a pooled asymptomatic proportion of 16%,5 hence the observed overall fraction in the present study (7%) might be a conservative estimate as the self-reported symptoms could have been due to other reasons or circulating pathogens along the recalled period (ie, 62% of the seronegative participants reported symptoms too). The asymptomatic proportion might be different across ages5 and should be explored further propecia 20 year study along with elucidating the overall contribution of asymptomatic transmission via well-designed contact-tracing studies.

Interestingly, clinical studies have observed anosmia/ageusia to be associated with hair loss , and this notion is supported here at a population-based level.30 In the propecia context, sudden onset of anosmia/ageusia seems to be a useful surveillance tool, which can contribute to early disease recognition and minimise transmission by rapid self-isolation.This study has some limitations. First, although half of the total municipalities in the Netherlands were included, some hair loss treatment hotspots might be missed due to the study propecia 20 year study design. Second, our study population consisted of more Dutch (88%) than non-Dutch persons and relative more healthcare workers (20%) when compared to the general population (76% and 14%, respectively).17 Healthcare workers in the Netherlands do not seem to have had a higher likelihood of , and transmission seems to have propecia 20 year study taken place mostly in household settings.3 31 Although selectivity in response was minimised by weighting our study sample on a set of sociodemographic characters to match the Dutch population, seroprevalence might still be slightly influenced. Third, some potential determinants for seropositivity could have been missed as we might have been underpowered to detect small differences given the low prevalence in this phase, or because these questions had not been included in the questionnaire (as it was designed in the very beginning of the epidemic). Finally, at this stage the proportion of infected individuals that fail to show detectable seroconversion is unknown, potentially leading to underestimation of the percentage of infected persons.To conclude, we estimated that 2.8% of the Dutch inhabitants, that propecia 20 year study is, nearly half a million, were infected with hair loss amidst the first epidemic wave in the beginning of April 2020.

This is in striking contrast with the 30-fold lower number of reported cases (of approximately 15 000)3, and underlines the importance of seroepidemiological studies to estimate the true propecia size. The proportion of persons still susceptible to hair loss is high and IFR is substantial.4 Globally, nationwide seroepidemiological studies are urgently needed for better understanding of related risk factors, viral spread, and measures applied to mitigate dissemination.7 The prospective nature of our study will enable us to gain key insights on the duration and quality of antibody responses in infected persons, and hence possible protection of disease by antibodies.6 Serosurveys will thus play a major role in guiding future interventions, such as strategies for vaccination (of risk groups), since even when treatments become available, initial treatment availability will be limited.What is already known on this topicReported hair loss treatment cases worldwide are an underestimation of the true magnitude of the propecia as the scope of undetected cases remains largely unknown.Various symptoms and risk factors have been identified in patients seeking medical advice, however, these may not be representative for s in propecia 20 year study the general population.Seroepidemiological studies in outbreak settings have been performed, however, studies on a nationwide level covering all ages remain limited.What this study addsThis nationwide seroepidemiological study covering all ages reveals that 2.8% of the Dutch population had been infected with hair loss at the beginning of April 2020, that is, 30 times higher than the official cases reported, leaving a large proportion of the population still susceptible for .The highest seroprevalence was observed in young adults from 18 to 39 years of age and lowest in children aged 2 to 17 years, indicating marginal hair loss s among children in general.Persons taking immunosuppressants as well as those from the Orthodox-Reformed Protestant community had over four times higher odds of being seropositive compared to others.The extend of the spread of hair loss and the risk groups identified here, can inform monitoring strategies and guide future interventions internationally.AcknowledgmentsFirst of all, we gratefully acknowledge the participants of the PICO-study. Secondly, this study would not have been possible without the instrumental contribution of colleagues from the National Institute of Public Health and Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands, more specially the department of Immunology of Infectious Diseases and treatments, regarding logistics and/or laboratory analyses (Marjan Bogaard-van Maurik, Annemarie Buisman, Pieter van Gageldonk, Hinke ten Hulscher-van Overbeek, Petra Jochemsen, Deborah Kleijne, Jessica Loch, Marjan Kuijer, Milou Ohm, Hella Pasmans, Lia de Rond, Debbie van Rooijen, Liza Tymchenko, Esther van Woudenbergh, and Mary-lene de Zeeuw-Brouwer), the Epidemiology and Surveillance department concerning logistics (Francoise van Heiningen, Alies van Lier, Jeanet Kemmeren, Joske Hoes, Maarten Immink, Marit Middeldorp, Christiaan Oostdijk, Ilse Schinkel-Gordijn, Yolanda van Weert, and Anneke Westerhof), methodological insights (Hendriek Boshuizen, Susan Hahné, Scott McDonald, Rianne van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Jan van de Kassteele, and Maarten Schipper) and manuscript reviewing (Susan van den Hof, and Don Klinkenberg), department propecia 20 year study of IT and Communication for help with the invitations (Luppo de Vries, Daphne Gijselaar, and Maaike Mathu), student interns for additional support (Stijn Andeweg for creating online supplemental figures 1A and 1B. Janine Wolf, Natasha Kaagman, and Demi Wagenaar for logistics. And Lisette van Cooten for data entry of paper questionnaires), and Sidekick-IT, Breda, the Netherlands, regarding data flow (Tim de propecia 20 year study Hoog).

This study was funded by the ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports (VWS), the Netherlands..

IntroductionEarly life is regarded as a crucial period of neurobiological, http://toenrichlives.com/2012/03/handi-medical-supply-sponsors-mdas-winter-wine-down/ emotional, social and physical development in all animal species and may have long-term implications buy cheap propecia online for health across the life course. The first studies examining the preadult origins of chronic disease were probably published more than 50 years ago and based on rodent models.1 By briefly administering a suboptimal diet to newborn mice, Dubos and others1 demonstrated a marked buy cheap propecia online impact on subsequent growth and resistance to . In the 1970s, Forsdahl,2 using infant mortality rates as a proxy for living conditions at birth, arguably provided the first evidence in humans for an association with heart disease in later life. In the last two decades, findings from longitudinal studies with extended mortality and morbidity surveillance have implicated a host of preadult characteristics as potential risk factors for several chronic disease outcomes, including perinatal and postnatal growth,3 coordination,4 intelligence,5 6 mental health,7 overweight,8 9 physical stature,10 raised blood pressure,11 12 cigarette smoking,13 physical strength14 and diet15 among many others.16An array of prospective studies has also demonstrated associations of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage–indexed by paternal social class or education, the presence of household amenities and domestic overcrowding—with somatic health outcomes in adulthood, chiefly premature mortality and cardiovascular disease.17 18 Parallel work has been undertaken by psychologists and psychiatrists exploring the consequences of childhood maeatment for later psychopathologies—perhaps the most well examined health endpoint in this context.19 20 Collectively, these early life circumstances have been more widely defined to comprise the separate themes of material deprivation buy cheap propecia online (eg, economic hardship and long-term unemployment).

Stressful family dynamics (eg, physical and emotional abuse, psychiatric illness or substance abuse by a family member) buy cheap propecia online. Loss or threat of loss (eg, death or serious illness …INTRODUCTIONSevere acute respiratory syndrome hair loss 2 (hair loss), causative agent of hair loss disease (hair loss treatment), emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared hair loss treatment a propecia, with over 10 million confirmed cases as buy cheap propecia online of the beginning of July 2020.1 2 The first patient in the Netherlands was confirmed on 27 February 2020.3 Cases primarily clustered in the southeastern part of the country, but were reported in other regions quickly hereafter. Multi-pronged interventions to suppress the spread of the propecia, including social distancing, school and bar/restaurant closure, and stringent advice to home quarantine when feeling ill and work from home, were implemented on 16 March 2020—and were relaxed gradually since 1 June 2020.

By 1 July 2020, 50 273 cases, 11 877 hospitalisations, and 6113 related deaths were reported buy cheap propecia online in the Netherlands.3Supplemental materialReported hair loss treatment cases worldwide are an underestimation of the true magnitude of the propecia. The scope of undetected cases remains largely unknown due to difference in restrictive testing policy and registration across countries, and buy cheap propecia online occurrence of asymptomatic s.4 5 Large-scale nationwide serosurveillance studies measuring hair loss-specific serum antibodies could help to better assess the number of s, viral spread, and groups at risk of in the general population by incorporating extensive questionnaire data, for example, on lifestyle, behaviour and profession. This might yield different factors than those identified for (severely-ill) clinical cases investigated more frequently up until now.6 7 Unfortunately, such nationwide studies (eg, in Spain8 and Iceland,9) also referred to as Unity Studies by the WHO,10 are scarce and mainly set up through convenience sampling.Therefore, a nationwide serosurveillance study (PIENTER-Corona, PICO) was initiated quickly after the lockdown was in effect. This cohort is unique as it comprises data available from a previous serosurvey established in 2016/17 (PIENTER-3) of a randomised nationwide sample of Dutch citizens, across all ages and a separate sample enriched for Orthodox-Reformed Protestants, whom might have been exposed to hair loss more frequently due to their socio-geographical-clustered buy cheap propecia online lifestyle.11 12 The presented serological framework and findings of our first round of inclusion can support public health policy in the Netherlands as well as internationally.METHODSStudy designIn 2016/17, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment of the Netherlands (RIVM) initiated a large-scale nationwide serosurveillance study (PIENTER-3) (n=7600.

Age-range 0–89 years). The primary aim was to obtain insights into the protection against treatment-preventable diseases offered by the National Immunisation Programme in the buy cheap propecia online Netherlands. A comprehensive description of PIENTER-3 has been published previously.13 Briefly, participants were selected via a two-stage cluster design, comprising 40 municipalities in five regions nationwide (henceforth ‘national sample’, NS), and nine municipalities in the low vaccination buy cheap propecia online coverage municipalities (LVC), inhabited by a relative large proportion of Orthodox-Reformed Protestants (figure 1). Among other materials, sera and questionnaire data had been collected from all participants.

Hence, the buy cheap propecia online PIENTER-3 study acted as baseline sample of the Dutch population for the present cross-sectional PICO-study since 6102 participants (80%) consented to be approached for follow-up (after updating addresses and screening of possible deaths). The study was powered to estimate an overall seroprevalence with a precision of at least 2.5%.13 The PICO-study protocol was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee MEC-U, the Netherlands (Clinical Trial Registration NTR8473), and conformed to the principles embodied in the Declaration of Helsinki.Geographical representation of number of participants in the PICO-study, the Netherlands, first round of inclusion, per municipality. The size of the dots reflect the absolute number buy cheap propecia online of participants. Thicker grey buy cheap propecia online and smaller light grey boundaries represent provinces and municipalities, respectively, and orange and blue boundaries characterise municipalities from the national and low vaccination coverage sample, respectively." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Geographical representation of number of participants in the PICO-study, the Netherlands, first round of inclusion, per municipality.

The size of the dots reflect the absolute number of participants. Thicker grey buy cheap propecia online and smaller light grey boundaries represent provinces and municipalities, respectively, and orange and blue boundaries characterise municipalities from the national and low vaccination coverage sample, respectively.Study population and materialsOn 25 March 2020, an invitation letter was sent. Invitees (age-range 2–92 years) willing to participate registered online. After enrolment, participants received an instruction letter on how to self-collect a fingerstick blood buy cheap propecia online sample in a microtainer (maximum of 0.3 mL).

Blood samples were returned to the RIVM-laboratory in safety envelopes buy cheap propecia online. Serum samples were stored at −20°C awaiting analyses. Materials were collected between March 31 and May 11, with the majority (80%) in the first week of buy cheap propecia online April 2020 (median collection date April 3). Simultaneous with the blood collection, participants were asked to complete an (online) questionnaire, including questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, hair loss treatment-related symptoms, and potential other determinants for hair loss seropositivity, such as comorbidities, medication use and behavioural factors.

All participants provided written informed consent.Laboratory methodsSerum buy cheap propecia online samples (diluted 1:200) were tested for the presence of hair loss spike S1-specific IgG antibodies using a validated fluorescent bead-based multiplex-immunoassay as described.14 A cut-off concentration for seropositivity (2.37 AU/mL. With specificity of 99% and sensitivity of 84.4%) was determined by ROC-analysis of 400 pre-propecia control samples (including a nationwide random cross-sectional sample (n=108)) as well as patients with confirmed influenza-like illnesses caused by hair losses and other buy cheap propecia online propeciaes, and a selection of sera from 115 PCR-confirmed hair loss treatment cases with mild, or severe disease symptoms. Seropositive PICO-samples and those with a concentration 25% below the cut-off were retested (n=138), and the geometric mean concentration (GMC) was calculated. Paired pre-propecia PIENTER-3-samples of these retested PICO-samples (available from 129/138) were tested correspondingly as described above to correct for false-positive results (online supplemental figure S1A).Statistical analysesStudy population, hair loss treatment-related symptoms and antibody responsesData management and analyses were conducted in SAS v.9.4 buy cheap propecia online (SAS Institute Inc., USA) and R v.3.6.

P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Sociodemographic characteristics and hair loss treatment-related symptoms (general, respiratory, and gastrointestinal) developed since buy cheap propecia online the start of the epidemic were stratified by sample (NS vs LVC), or sex, respectively, and described for seropositive and seronegative participants. Differences were buy cheap propecia online tested via Pearson’s χ², or Fisher’s exact test if appropriate. Differences in GMC between reported symptoms in seropositive participants were determined by calculating the difference in log-transformed concentrations of those who developed symptoms at least 4 weeks prior to the sampling—ensuring a plateaued response—and tested by means of a Mann-Whitney U-test.Seroprevalence estimatesSeroprevalence estimates (with 95% Wilson CIs (CI)) for hair loss-specific antibodies were calculated taking into account the survey design (ie, controlling for region and municipality) and weighted by sex, age, ethnic background and degree of urbanisation to match the distribution of the general Dutch population in both the NS and LVC sample.

Estimates were corrected for test performance via the buy cheap propecia online Rogan &. Gladen bias correction (with sensitivity of 84.4% and assuming a specificity of 100% after cross-validation with pre-sera).15 Smooth age-specific seroprevalence estimates were obtained with a logistic regression in a Generalised Additive Model using penalised splines.16Risk factors for hair loss seropositivityA random-effects logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for hair loss seropositivity, applying a full case analysis (n=3100. Values were missing buy cheap propecia online for <5% of the participants). Potential risk factors included sociodemographic characteristics (sex, age group, region, ethnic background, Orthodox-Reformed Protestants, educational level, household size, (parent with a) contact profession, healthcare worker), and hair loss treatment-related factors (contact with a hair loss treatment confirmed case, number of persons contacted yesterday, working from home (normally and in the last buy cheap propecia online week), comorbidities (combining diabetes, history of malignancy, immunodeficiency, cardio-vascular, kidney and chronic lung disease (note.

As a sensitivity analysis, comorbidities were also included separately)), and use of blood pressure medication, immunosuppressants, statins and antivirals/antibiotics in the last month). Models included a random intercept, potential clustering by municipality and region was accounted for, and odds ratios (OR) in univariable analyses were a priori adjusted for buy cheap propecia online sex and age. Variables with p<0.10 were entered in the multivariable analysis, and backward selection was performed—manually dropping variables one-by-one based on p≥0.05—to identify significant risk factors. Adjusted ORs and corresponding 95% CIs were provided.RESULTSStudy populationOf 6102 invitees, 3207 (53%) donated a serum sample and filled-out the questionnaire, of which 2637 persons from the NS and 570 from the LVC buy cheap propecia online.

Participants from across the country participated (figure 1), with age ranging from 2 to 90 buy cheap propecia online years (table 1). In the NS, slightly more women (55%) participated, most (88%) were of Dutch descent, nearly half had a high educational level, and 45% was religious. 20 percent of persons between age 25–66 years were healthcare workers and 56% of the (parents of) participants reported to have buy cheap propecia online had daily contact with patients, clients and/or children in their profession/volunteer work normally. Over half of the participants lived in a ≥2-person household, and 78% reported to have had physical contact with <5 people outside their own household yesterday (during lockdown), of which more than half with nobody.

Comorbidities most frequently reported included chronic lung and buy cheap propecia online cardiovascular disease (both 13%), and a history of malignancy (5%). In line with the population distribution, the LVC sample was characterised by a relative high proportion of Orthodox-Reformed buy cheap propecia online Protestants from Dutch descent (table 1). Sociodemographic characteristics between responders and non-responders are provided in online supplemental table S1.View this table:Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of participants in the PICO-study and weighted seroprevalence in the general population of the Netherlands, first round of inclusion, by national sample and low vaccination coverage sampleSupplemental materialhair loss treatment-related symptoms and antibody responsesIn total, 63% of participants reported to have had ≥1 hair loss treatment-related symptom(s) since the start of the epidemic, with runny nose (37%), headache (33%), and cough (30%) being most common (table 2). All reported symptoms were significantly higher in seropositive compared to buy cheap propecia online seronegative persons, except for stomach ache.

The majority of those seropositive (93%) reported to have had symptoms (90% of buy cheap propecia online men vs 95% of women), of whom three already in mid-February, 2 weeks prior to the official first notification. Median duration of illness in the seropositive participants was 8.5 days (IQR. 4.0–12.5), 16% (n=12) visited ageneral practitioner and one was admitted buy cheap propecia online to the hospital. Among seropositive persons, most reported to have had ≥1 respiratory symptom(s) (86%), with runny nose and cough (both 61%) most regularly, and ≥1 general (84%) symptom(s), of which anosmia/ageusia (53%) was most discriminative as compared to the seronegative participants (4%, p<0.0001) (table 2).

Symptoms were more common in buy cheap propecia online women, except for anosmia/ageusia, cough and irritable/confusion. Almost 75% buy cheap propecia online of the seropositive participants met the hair loss treatment case definition of fever and/or cough and/or dyspnoea, which improved to 80% when anosmia/ageusia was included—while remaining 36% in those seronegative. GMC was significantly higher among seropositive persons with fever vs without (48.2 vs 11.6 AU/mL, p=0.01), and with dyspnoea vs without (78.6 vs 13.5 AU/mL, p=0.04).View this table:Table 2 hair loss treatment-related symptoms since the start of the epidemic among all participants in the PICO-study reporting symptoms (n=3147), first round of inclusionSeroprevalence estimatesOverall weighted seroprevalence in the NS was 2.8% (95% CI 2.1 to 3.7), did not differ between sexes or ethnic backgrounds (table 1), and was not higher among healthcare workers (2.7% vs non-healthcare workers 2.5%). Seroprevalence was lowest in the northern region (1.3%) and highest buy cheap propecia online in the mid-west (4.0%).

Estimates were lowest in children—gradually increasing from below 1% at age 2 years to 3% at 17 years—was highest in age group 18–39 years (4.9%) and ranged between 2 and 4% up to 90 years of age (figure 2). In both buy cheap propecia online samples, seroprevalence was highest in Orthodox-Reformed Protestants (>7%) (table 1). Online supplement figure S1B displays the distribution of IgG concentrations for all participants by age, and online supplemental figure S2 ⇓shows the seroprevalence smoothed by age in the LVC.Smooth age-specific hair loss seroprevalence in the general population of the Netherlands, beginning of April 2020." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Smooth age-specific hair loss seroprevalence in the general population of the Netherlands, beginning buy cheap propecia online of April 2020.Risk factors for hair loss seropositivityVariables that were associated with hair loss seropositivity in univariable analyses included age group, Orthodox-Reformed Protestant, had been in contact with a hair loss treatment case, use of immunosuppressants, and antibiotic/antiviral medication in the last month (table 3). In multivariable analysis, substantial higher odds were observed for those who took immunosuppressants the last month, were Orthodox-Reformed Protestant, had been in contact with a hair loss treatment confirmed case, and from age groups 18–24 and 25–39 years (compared to 2–12 years).View this table:Table 3 Risk factor analysis for hair loss seropositivity among all participants (n=3100.

Full case analysis) in the PICO-study, first round of inclusionDISCUSSIONHere, we have estimated the seroprevalence of buy cheap propecia online hair loss-specific antibodies and identified risk factors for seropositivity in the general population of the Netherlands during the first epidemic wave in April 2020. Although overall seroprevalence was still low at this phase, important risk factors for seropositivity could be identified, including adults aged 18–39 years, persons using immunosuppressants, and Orthodox-Reformed Protestants. These data can guide future interventions, including strategies for vaccination, believed to be a realistic solution to overcome this propecia.This PICO-study revealed that 2.8% (95% CI 2.1 to 3.7) of the Dutch population had detectable hair loss-specific serum IgG antibodies, suggesting that almost half a million inhabitants buy cheap propecia online (of in total 17 423 98117) were infected (487 871 (95% CI 365 904 to 644 687)) in mid-March, 2020 (taking into account the median time to seroconvert18). Several seropositive participants reported to have had hair loss treatment-related symptoms back in mid-February, suggesting the propecia circulated in our country at the beginning of February already buy cheap propecia online.

Our overall estimate is in line with preliminary results from another study conducted in the Netherlands in the beginning of April which found 2.7% to be seropositive, although this study was performed in healthy blood donors aged 18–79 years.19 Worldwide, various seroprevalence studies are ongoing. A large nationwide study in Spain showed that around 5% (ranging between 3.7% and 6.2%) was seropositive, indicating that only a small buy cheap propecia online proportion of the population had been infected in one of the hardest hit countries in Europe. Current studies in literature mostly cover hair loss treatment hotspots or specific regions—with possibly bias in selection of participants and/or smaller age-ranges—with rates ranging between 1–7% in April (eg, in Los Angeles County (CA, USA)20 or ten other sites in the USA,21 Geneva (Switzerland),22 and Luxembourg23). Estimates also buy cheap propecia online very much depend on test performances.

Particularly, when seroprevalence is relatively low, specificity of the assay should buy cheap propecia online approach near 100% to diminish false-positive results and minimise overestimation. Although we cannot rule-out false-positive samples completely, our assay was validated using a broad range of positive and negative hair loss samples. PICO-samples were buy cheap propecia online cross-linked to pre-propecia concentration. And bias correction for test performance was applied to represent most accurate estimates.

In addition, future studies should buy cheap propecia online establish whether epidemiologically dominant genetic changes in the spike protein of hair loss influence binding to spike S1 used in our and other assays.Seroprevalence was highest in adults aged 18–39 years, which is in line with the serosurvey among blood donors in the Netherlands, but contrary to the low incidence rate as reported in Dutch surveillance, caused by restrictive testing of risk groups and healthcare workers at the beginning of the epidemic, primarily identifying severe cases.3 19 The elevation in these younger adults may be explained by increased social contacts typical for this age group, in addition to specific social activities in February, such as skiing holidays in the Alps (from where the propecia disseminated quickly across Europe), or carnival festivities in the Netherlands (ie, multiple superspreading events primarily in the mid and Southern part, explaining local elevation in seroprevalence). In correspondence with other nationwide studies8 9 and reports buy cheap propecia online from the Dutch government,3 24 seroprevalence was lowest in children. Although some rare events of paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome have been reported, this group seems to be at decreased risk for developing (severe) hair loss treatment in general, which may be explained by less severe possibly resulting in a limited humoral response.25 26 Further, significantly higher odds for seropositivity were seen in Orthodox-Reformed Protestants. This community buy cheap propecia online lives socio-geographically clustered in the Netherlands, that is, work, school, leisure and church are intertwined heavily.

As observed in other countries, particularly frequent attendance of church with close distance to others, including singing activities, might have fuelled the spread of hair loss within this community in the beginning of the epidemic.11 12 Whereas the comorbidities with possible increased risk of severe hair loss treatment were not associated with seropositivity in this study, immunosuppressants use did display higher odds (note. We did not have information of buy cheap propecia online specific drugs). Recent data indicate that immunosuppressive treatment is not associated with worse hair loss treatment outcomes,27 28 yet continued surveillance is warranted as these patients might be more prone to (future) , for instance due to a possible buy cheap propecia online attenuated humoral immune response.29The majority of seropositive participants exhibited ≥1 symptom(s), mostly general and respiratory. A recent meta-analysis found a pooled asymptomatic proportion of 16%,5 hence the observed overall fraction in the present study (7%) might be a conservative estimate as the self-reported symptoms could have been due to other reasons or circulating pathogens along the recalled period (ie, 62% of the seronegative participants reported symptoms too).

The asymptomatic proportion might be different across ages5 and should be buy cheap propecia online explored further along with elucidating the overall contribution of asymptomatic transmission via well-designed contact-tracing studies. Interestingly, clinical studies have observed anosmia/ageusia to be associated with hair loss , and this notion is supported here at a population-based level.30 In the propecia context, sudden onset of anosmia/ageusia seems to be a useful surveillance tool, which can contribute to early disease recognition and minimise transmission by rapid self-isolation.This study has some limitations. First, although half of the total municipalities in the Netherlands were included, some hair loss treatment hotspots might be missed buy cheap propecia online due to the study design. Second, our study population consisted of more Dutch (88%) than non-Dutch persons and relative more healthcare workers (20%) when compared to the general population (76% and 14%, respectively).17 Healthcare workers in the Netherlands do not seem to have had a higher buy cheap propecia online likelihood of , and transmission seems to have taken place mostly in household settings.3 31 Although selectivity in response was minimised by weighting our study sample on a set of sociodemographic characters to match the Dutch population, seroprevalence might still be slightly influenced.

Third, some potential determinants for seropositivity could have been missed as we might have been underpowered to detect small differences given the low prevalence in this phase, or because these questions had not been included in the questionnaire (as it was designed in the very beginning of the epidemic). Finally, at this stage the proportion of infected individuals that fail to show detectable seroconversion is unknown, potentially leading to underestimation of the percentage of infected persons.To conclude, we estimated that 2.8% of the Dutch inhabitants, that is, nearly half buy cheap propecia online a million, were infected with hair loss amidst the first epidemic wave in the beginning of April 2020. This is in striking contrast with the 30-fold lower number of reported cases (of approximately 15 000)3, and underlines the importance of seroepidemiological studies to estimate the true propecia size. The proportion of persons still susceptible to hair loss is high and IFR is substantial.4 Globally, nationwide seroepidemiological studies are urgently needed for better understanding of related risk factors, viral spread, and measures applied to mitigate dissemination.7 The prospective nature of our study will enable us to gain key insights on the duration and quality of antibody responses in infected persons, and hence possible protection of disease by antibodies.6 Serosurveys will thus play a major role in guiding future interventions, such as strategies for vaccination (of risk groups), since even when treatments become available, initial treatment availability will be limited.What is already known on this topicReported hair loss treatment cases worldwide are an underestimation of the true magnitude of the propecia as the scope of undetected cases remains largely unknown.Various symptoms and risk factors have been identified in patients seeking medical advice, however, these may not be representative for s in the general population.Seroepidemiological studies in outbreak settings have been performed, however, buy cheap propecia online studies on a nationwide level covering all ages remain limited.What this study addsThis nationwide seroepidemiological study covering all ages reveals that 2.8% of the Dutch population had been infected with hair loss at the beginning of April 2020, that is, 30 times higher than the official cases reported, leaving a large proportion of the population still susceptible for .The highest seroprevalence was observed in young adults from 18 to 39 years of age and lowest in children aged 2 to 17 years, indicating marginal hair loss s among children in general.Persons taking immunosuppressants as well as those from the Orthodox-Reformed Protestant community had over four times higher odds of being seropositive compared to others.The extend of the spread of hair loss and the risk groups identified here, can inform monitoring strategies and guide future interventions internationally.AcknowledgmentsFirst of all, we gratefully acknowledge the participants of the PICO-study.

Secondly, this study would not have been possible without the instrumental contribution of colleagues from the National Institute of Public Health and Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands, more specially the department of Immunology of Infectious Diseases and treatments, regarding logistics and/or laboratory analyses (Marjan Bogaard-van Maurik, Annemarie Buisman, Pieter van Gageldonk, Hinke ten Hulscher-van Overbeek, Petra Jochemsen, Deborah Kleijne, Jessica buy cheap propecia online Loch, Marjan Kuijer, Milou Ohm, Hella Pasmans, Lia de Rond, Debbie van Rooijen, Liza Tymchenko, Esther van Woudenbergh, and Mary-lene de Zeeuw-Brouwer), the Epidemiology and Surveillance department concerning logistics (Francoise van Heiningen, Alies van Lier, Jeanet Kemmeren, Joske Hoes, Maarten Immink, Marit Middeldorp, Christiaan Oostdijk, Ilse Schinkel-Gordijn, Yolanda van Weert, and Anneke Westerhof), methodological insights (Hendriek Boshuizen, Susan Hahné, Scott McDonald, Rianne van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Jan van de Kassteele, and Maarten Schipper) and manuscript reviewing (Susan van den Hof, and Don Klinkenberg), department of IT and Communication for help with the invitations (Luppo de Vries, Daphne Gijselaar, and Maaike Mathu), student interns for additional support (Stijn Andeweg for creating online supplemental figures 1A and 1B. Janine Wolf, Natasha Kaagman, and Demi Wagenaar for logistics. And Lisette van Cooten for data entry of paper questionnaires), and Sidekick-IT, Breda, the buy cheap propecia online Netherlands, regarding data flow (Tim de Hoog). This study was funded by the ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports (VWS), the Netherlands..